Thursday, September 28, 2023

What Is The Blood Type

Universal Donor And Universal Recipient

Blood Types Explained: Easy and Simple

O negative blood contains no A, B, or RhD antigens. Almost anyone with any blood type can receive these red blood cells. A person with group O negative blood is a universal donor.

  • A person with O-negative blood can donate to almost anyone.
  • A person with Rh-negative blood can donate to a person with Rh-negative or Rh-positive blood.
  • A person with Rh-positive blood can only donate to someone with Rh-positive blood.

As a result, there is a high demand for O negative blood, even though fewer than 10% of the U.S. population has this type.

The rules for plasma are the opposite of those for Rh. A universal plasma donor will have type AB blood.

life-threatening reactions and complications.

If someone with group B antigen receives red blood cells from someone with group A antigen, their body will launch an immune response and reject the transfusion. The anti-A antibody in the recipients plasma will attack and destroy the A antigen donor red blood cells.

When the recipients plasma attacks and destroys the donor cells, the blood may clump, or agglutinate. This can lead to blood clots, which can obstruct blood vessels. If they break, hemoglobin can leak out, and this can be toxic.

Other possible adverse effects include allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. In some cases, the body can cope, but others can be life-threatening.

Some reactions occur at once, while others can take up to 28 days to appear.

What If I Need A Blood Transfusion

People may need a blood transfusion if they lose a lot of blood their blood is low in certain components such as red cells, platelets or plasma because they have a medical condition such as cancer, anaemia or a bleeding disorder or because they are having surgery.

If you need a transfusion, you will receive blood that has been collected by Australian Red Cross Lifeblood from voluntary donors. All blood is rigorously checked for infections such as HIV and hepatitis. You will also have careful identification checks before the transfusion to make sure you receive the right blood type.

Receiving the wrong blood type in a transfusion is extremely rare. If you did get the wrong blood type, you could have a serious reaction. This could be life threatening so you would need treatment quickly.

Blood Grouping And Cross

The most fatal of all transfusion-related reaction is ABO incompatibility causing complement-mediated intravascular hemolysis. Hence, correct blood grouping and typing, and cross-checking with the blood requisition form is of utmost importance. ABO typing is carried out by testing RBCs for the A and B antigens and the serum for the A and B antibodies before transfusion. The next step involves Rh typing with only 15% of the population being Rh-negative.

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Why Donating Blood Is Important

Donated blood can be turned into different medical treatments, depending on which blood type you have. For example, whole blood from type A, type O positive and type O negative is always needed. People with type AB or type B can donate plasma, which is vital for patients with injury, severe burns or blood diseases.

Donating blood can save someone elses life. To find out if youre eligible, and to learn more, visit the Australian Red Cross Lifeblood website or call 13 14 95.

Blood Types And Transfusion

Blood Types  Stanford Blood Center

There are very specific ways in which blood types must be matched for a safe transfusion. The right blood transfusion can mean the difference between life and death. Use the interactive graphic below to learn more about matching blood types for transfusions.

Also, Rh-negative blood is given to Rh-negative patients, and Rh-positive or Rh-negative blood may be given to Rh-positive patients. The rules for plasma are the reverse.

  • The universal red cell donor has Type O negative blood.
  • The universal plasma donor has Type AB blood.

There are more than 600 other known antigens, the presence or absence of which creates “rare blood types.” Certain blood types are unique to specific ethnic or racial groups. Thats why an African-American blood donation may be the best hope for the needs of patients with sickle cell disease, many of whom are of African descent. Learn about blood and diversity.

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Blood Groups And Disease Association

The ABO blood groups have a profound influence on haemostasis. They exert major quantitative effects on plasma levels of von Willebrand factor and factor VIII. Increased association of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and venous thromboembolism is seen with blood groups A and AB possibly through functional ABO glycol transferases modulation of thrombosis. A higher risk of cerebral venous thrombosis has been reported in non-O groups. Significant association of ABO groups with the prevalence of preeclampsia has been reported, where AB group was found to be associated with an increased risk of 2.1-folds. Preliminary studies suggested an association of ABO system with malignancies. A positive correlation has been shown between blood group A with chronic hepatitis-B infection and pancreatic cancer and blood group B with ovarian cancer. Protection against falciparum malaria can be achieved with group O by reducing rosette formation. Blood group O increases the severity of infection in Vibrio cholerae strains .

Does It Allow For Dietary Restrictions Or Preferences

Because the diet dictates that you eat very specific types of food based on your blood type, it doesn’t allow much for personal tastes.

For example, if you’re a big fan of meat and potatoes, you won’t be very happy on the type A diet, which is mostly vegetarian.

There are even recommendations about the types of spices and condiments you can use.

If you’re looking for a diet that’s gluten-free, you should know that this diet doesn’t ban gluten. You may be able to make choices that are gluten-free, if you read food labels carefully.

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Why It Is Done

A blood type test is done:

  • Before you get a blood transfusion.
  • When a woman is planning to become pregnant or first becomes pregnant.
  • Before you donate blood.
  • Before a person donates an organ for transplantation.
  • To show whether two people could be blood relatives.
  • To check the identity of a person suspected of committing a crime.

Can Your Blood Type Change

Blood Types Explained | Blood Groups (ABO) and Rh Factor Nursing Transfusions Compatibility

Usually, you will have the same blood type all of your life. However, in some cases, the blood types have changed. This has been due to unusual circumstances, such as having a bone marrow transplant or getting certain types of cancers or infections. Not all of the changes in blood type are permanent.

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Other Blood Group Systems

As of September 2022, 41 blood-group systems have been identified by the International Society for Blood Transfusion in addition to the ABO and Rh systems. Thus, in addition to the ABO antigens and Rh antigens, many other antigens are expressed on the RBC surface membrane. For example, an individual can be AB, D positive, and at the same time M and N positive , K positive , Lea or Leb negative , and so on, being positive or negative for each blood group system antigen. Many of the blood group systems were named after the patients in whom the corresponding antibodies were initially encountered. Blood group systems other than ABO and Rh pose a potential, yet relatively low, risk of complications upon mixing of blood from different people.

Following is a comparison of clinically relevant characteristics of antibodies against the main human blood group systems:

Transfusion medicine is a specialized branch of hematology that is concerned with the study of blood groups, along with the work of a blood bank to provide a transfusion service for blood and other blood products. Across the world, blood products must be prescribed by a medical doctor in a similar way as medicines.

The blood group may be included on identification tags or on tattoos worn by military personnel, in case they should need an emergency blood transfusion. Frontline German Waffen-SS had blood group tattoos during World War II.

What Are The Blood Types

Categorizing blood according to type helps prevent reactions when someone gets a blood transfusion. Red blood cells have markers on their surface that characterize the cell type. These markers are proteins and sugars that our bodies use to identify the blood cells as belonging in us.

The two main blood groups are ABO and Rh.

The ABO blood system has four main types:

  • Type A: This blood type has a marker known as A.
  • Type B: This blood type has a marker known as B.
  • Type AB: This blood type has both A and B markers.
  • Type O: This blood type has neither A nor B markers.

Blood is further classified as being either “Rh positive” or “Rh negative” .

So, there are eight possible blood types:

  • O negative. This blood type doesn’t have A or B markers, and it doesn’t have Rh factor.
  • O positive. This blood type doesn’t have A or B markers, but it does have Rh factor. O positive blood is one of the two most common blood types .
  • A negative. This blood type has A marker only.
  • A positive. This blood type has A marker and Rh factor, but not B marker. Along with O positive, it’s one of the two most common blood types.
  • B negative. This blood type has B marker only.
  • B positive. This blood type has B marker and Rh factor, but not A marker.
  • AB negative. This blood type has A and B markers, but not Rh factor.
  • AB positive. This blood type has all three types of markers A, B, and Rh factor.
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    Level Of Effort: High

    If you don’t already know your blood type, you’ll need to find that out. The results will determine exactly what you need to do.

    Limitations: Depending on your blood type, you may need to severely restrict the foods you eat.

    Cooking and shopping: Your blood type will determine your shopping list and your choices when eating out.

    Packaged foods or meals? None required.

    In-person meetings? No.

    Exercise: The Blood Type Diet recommends exercises based on your blood type. For instance, it suggests yoga or tai chi for type As, and vigorous aerobic exercises like jogging or biking for up to an hour a day for type Os.

    How Blood Type Is Determined And Why You Need To Know


    Blood types are determined by the presence or absence of certain antigens substances that can trigger an immune response if they are foreign to the body. Since some antigens can trigger a patient’s immune system to attack the transfused blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. Do you know what blood type is safe for you if you need a transfusion?

    Discover what blood types are compatible with yours.
    Get our guide to find out.

    There are four major blood groups determined by the presence or absence of two antigens, A and B, on the surface of red blood cells. In addition to the A and B antigens, there is a protein called the Rh factor, which can be either present or absent , creating the 8 most common blood types .

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    What You Can Eat

    That depends on your blood type. Here’s what D’Adamo recommends for each type:

    Type O blood: A high-protein diet heavy on lean meat, poultry, fish, and vegetables, and light on grains, beans, and dairy. D’Adamo also recommends various supplements to help with tummy troubles and other issues he says people with type O tend to have.

    Type A blood: A meat-free diet based on fruits and vegetables, beans and legumes, and whole grains — ideally, organic and fresh, because D’Adamo says people with type A blood have a sensitive immune system.

    Type B blood: Avoid corn, wheat, buckwheat, lentils, tomatoes, peanuts, and sesame seeds. Chicken is also problematic, D’Adamo says. He encourages eating green vegetables, eggs, certain meats, and low-fat dairy.

    Type AB blood: Foods to focus on include tofu, seafood, dairy, and green vegetables. He says people with type AB blood tend to have low stomach acid. Avoid caffeine, alcohol, and smoked or cured meats.

    How Is The Blood Type Identified

    The persons blood is combined with a reagent with antibodies.

    For instance, three drops of a donors blood are placed on a slide or dish. Anti-A reagent is added to the first drop, anti-B reagent to the second one and anti-D RhD reagent to the third one. If agglutination is noted in the first drop, that shows that the person has A antigen. If the same thing doesnt happen in the second drop, the person has no B antigen and if agglutination is seen in the third drop, the person is Rh positive. We can say based on that example that the donor is A positive.

    Ensuring a match between donor and patient is extremely important otherwise a patient may have a dangerous reaction to the transfusion.

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    Changing Practices In Blood Grouping

    There are controversies regarding the best method for procurement of blood during elective and emergency situations: It can be done by routinely asking for grouping and cross-matching in elective surgical patients. Many scientific articles disputed the relevance of preoperative arrangement of blood in surgeries where blood loss is not anticipated to be significant. Blood may be ordered without full set of investigations. ABO-Rh typing alone results in a 99.8% chance of a compatible transfusion. Antibody screening increases this safety margin up to 99.94%, and an additional cross-match further increases the compatibility to 99.95%. In absence of cross-matching, there is a possibility of missing the antigens on donor cells, but in clinical practice, they are of less importance. Hence, screening and typing alone should be carried out. Other methods include type and partial cross-match, which includes the immediate phase of cross-match type and uncross match, for those recipients who have never been transfused before, the chance of detection of antibody with each cross-match is 1:1000 type O Rh-negative uncross match, it is performed in emergency situation when the time for these procedures is limited. In the latter condition, type O Rh-negative packed RBCs, that is, the universal donor can be used as they will have a negligible amount of hemolytic anti-A/anti-B antibodies against the recipient RBCs.

    Abo Blood Group System

    Why do blood types matter? – Natalie S. Hodge

    ABO blood group systemABO blood group system

    The ABO blood group system involves two antigens and two antibodies found in human blood. The two antigens are antigen A and antigen B. The two antibodies are antibody A and antibody B. The antigens are present on the red blood cells and the antibodies in the serum. Regarding the antigen property of the blood all human beings can be classified into four groups, those with antigen A , those with antigen B , those with both antigen A and B and those with neither antigen . The antibodies present together with the antigens are found as follows:

  • Antigen A with antibody B
  • Antigen B with antibody A
  • Antigen AB with neither antibody A nor B
  • Antigen null with both antibody A and B
  • There is an agglutination reaction between similar antigen and antibody . Thus, transfusion can be considered safe as long as the serum of the recipient does not contain antibodies for the blood cell antigens of the donor.

    Phenotype and genotype of blood types

    The presence or absence of the Rh antigen is signified by the + or sign, so that, for example, the A group is ABO type A and does not have the Rh antigen.

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    Can Teens Donate Blood

    Blood transfusions are one of the most frequent lifesaving procedures hospitals do. So there’s always a need for blood donors. One blood donation can save up to three lives.

    About 15% of blood donors are high school and college students. If you’d like to help, contact your community blood center. It’s one way to be an everyday superhero and save lives!

    Using Ai Models To Predict Diabetes

    For the study, researchers used data from 436 participants from India.

    Each participant wore a CGM device for an average of 12 days and provided data including their sex, age, and body mass index .

    The researchers defined participants A1C levels of 6.5% and higher as type 2 diabetes, 5.5%6.5% as prediabetic, and under 5.5% as healthy.

    Among the participants, 172 had type 2 diabetes, 87 had prediabetes, and 177 were healthy. Diagnoses were confirmed by physicians.

    The researchers created AI prediction models based on different blood glucose level time durations. They compared models based on 12, 24, 72, 168, and 288-hour windows of data.

    They found that CGM data was 1.21, 1.34, and 1.17 times more accurate than demographic data in identifying type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, and healthy individuals.

    They also found that their 12-hour model was similarly effective as longer duration models.

    After optimizing the 12-hour model, they identified 87%, 84%, and 86% of those with diabetes or prediabetes and healthy individuals.

    The researchers noted that of those in the 12-hour prediction, 23 were misclassified due to unusual 12-hour readings in which they reported the same blood glucose levels over time.

    The researchers concluded that CGM systems could enable quick and accurate screening of diabetic outcomes.

    The researchers hope to conduct similar studies on larger cohorts to improve their prediction models.

    When asked about the studys limitations, Dr. Jeon told MNT:

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    What Are The Rare Blood Types

    A general definition of a rare blood type is one that happens at a rate of 1 per 1,000 people or less. Another definition is that your blood type is rare if you dont have an antigen that most people have or do have an antigen that most people dont have. However, a blood type can be rare in one location or ethnic group but more frequent in a different group of people.

    Outside of the ABO system, there are hundreds of antigens that may be attached to red blood cells. It is outside the scope of this article to list all known blood types. Some are so rare that only a small number of people have them.

    One of the worlds rarest blood types is one named Rh-null. This blood type is distinct from Rh negative since it has none of the Rh antigens at all. There are less than 50 people who have this blood type. It is sometimes called golden blood.

    In the U.S., the blood type AB, Rh negative is considered the rarest, while O positive is most common.

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