White Blood Cell And Differential Counts
White cell counts vary between different animal species. Absolute and relative neutrophil counts are generally higher in dogs than other species. Increases in neutrophil and lymphocyte counts occur under a variety of circumstances, usually related to spontaneous inflammatory disease, stress or secondary to treatment-induced tissue damage in other organs. A physiological leukocytosis which can double the leukocyte count in minutes appears to be a common phenomenon among laboratory macaques in response to stress.41 Cynomolgus monkeys naturally infected with Simian retrovirus type D have significantly lower white cell counts than their uninfected counterparts.44
Although antiproliferative anticancer drugs, immunosuppressive agents and antiviral drugs depress the white cell counts in one or more of the preclinical test species, such alterations may be quite acceptable for some clinical indications. Indeed, serious granulocytopenia is closely associated with the treatment of cancer and frequently dictates the schedule of cancer treatment protocols.
Another reported example was the dose-related granulocytopenia and bone marrow suppression found in both dogs and rats treated with a thiomopholine quinazosin antihypertensive agent, PD-88823. The lack of similar effects with its analog prazosin suggested that the thiomorpholine group had a central role in this hemopoietic toxicity, possibly as a result of its sulfur moiety.68
Alan F. Fleming, P. Shanthamali de Silva, in, 2009
Abnormal Wbc Count Due To Medications
Many prescription and over-the-counter drugs can cause an abnormal WBC count. It is essential always to review your medication history with your healthcare provider.
Certain drugs can cause your WBC count to drop below the normal range of values. These include:
- Antibiotics: Used to treat bacterial infections
- Anticonvulsive drugs: Use to treat epilepsy and chronic pain
- Chemotherapy: Used to treat cancer
- Rituxan : Used to treat autoimmune diseases and certain cancers
Some medicines can raise your WBC count. Some of the more common include:
- Albuterol: Used to treat asthma and other breathing problems
- Beta-blockers: Used to treat high blood pressure
Leukemia White Blood Cell Count Ranges In Children
The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society says that children under 4 years old may have a higher percentage of lymphocytes in their blood than older children and adults. According to the University of Rochester Medical Center, the normal ranges of white blood cells per microliter of blood are:
- 9,000 to 30,000 for newborns
- 6,200 to 17,000 for children under 2
- 5,000 to 10,000 for children over 2
Leukemia is the most common cancer in children and teens, according to the of ALL occurs in children. Diagnosis includes the presence of 20 percent or more lymphoblasts, or immature lymphocytes, in the blood or bone marrow.
Also Check: Ny Cancer And Blood Specialists Locations
What Does The Test Measure
A WBC count measures the total number of WBCs contained in a sample of blood. WBC, also called leukocytes, are an important part of the immune system. Made in the bone marrow, WBC help defend the body against infections and disease. There are five types of WBC, each supporting the immune system in a different way.
The WBC count is usually expressed as thousands of cells per microliter . Around 100 billion WBC are produced each day in the bone marrow. As they mature, WBC can be found in blood and the lymphatic system. There are five types of WBC:
A WBC count measures the total amount of all kinds of WBC. If a doctor needs information about the number of individual types of WBC, this information is provided in the WBC differential test.
What Is Low White Blood Cell Count
Every day, our bodies produce about 100 billion white blood cells . Leukocytes help defend our bodies against intruders like viruses and bacteria that may cause infections.
In leukopenia , you have lower-than-normal numbers of white blood cells. Specifically, you have fewer neutrophils than normal.
Neutrophils are white blood cells that act as your immune systems first line of defense. Without enough white blood cells, including enough neutrophils, youre more vulnerable to developing infections.
A white blood cell count thats less than 4,000 cells per microliter of blood is a low white blood cell count. Normal white blood cell counts vary depending on age and sex. For example, the white blood cell count for men, people designated male at birth and children is 5,000 to 10,000 cells per microliter of blood. The normal range for women and people designated female at birth is 4,500 to 11,000 microliters of blood.
Is leukopenia a kind of cancer?
No, its not but theres a connection between leukopenia and cancer. Cancer treatments may cause leukopenia.
Does leukopenia lead to leukemia?
No, but leukemia may cause leukopenia. Leukemia affects your blood cells, including white blood cells. Your bone marrow makes blood cells.
In leukemia, your body makes abnormal blood cells that multiply and divide. The abnormal cells eventually outnumber healthy cells, including healthy white blood cells. That leaves your body with lower-than-normal levels of white blood cells or leukopenia.
Read Also: Anion Gap Low On Blood Test
When Should I Know The Results Of The Test
Results are usually ready within a few days. Sometimes it only takes 24 hours to get results. Your provider will contact you to explain the results and discuss next steps. If your blood cell counts are outside of the normal range, your provider may order follow-up tests.
What are the normal ranges for a complete blood count?
Hemoglobin normal range:
What Happens During A White Blood Count
A health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial. You may feel a little sting when the needle goes in or out.
To test children, a health care provider will take a sample from the heel or the fingertip . The provider will clean the heel or fingertip with alcohol and poke the site with a small needle. The provider will collect a few drops of blood and put a bandage on the site.
Recommended Reading: Average Blood Loss During Period
Recommended Reading: Blood Sugar 30 Minutes After Eating
A Closer Look At Your Lab Test Results
Getting a CBC is simple. A nurse or other member of your healthcare team takes a sample of blood from your arm and sends it to the lab for testing. The lab measures the different components in your blood and sends the report back to your doctor. Often, your doctor provides you with a copy as well.
Your doctor goes over the results with you and explains what they mean. Each lab is different. Labs usually vary a little in what they consider a normal range. On the results, the lab should define what the normal range is next to what your measured range is. It should indicate if your count is high or low so that you can ask your doctor questions about what that means for your health.
High White Blood Cell Count
Leukocytosis is the medical term used to describe a high WBC count. This can be triggered by:
- infections such as tuberculosis, , or septic shock
High WBC counts dont often cause symptoms, although the underlying conditions causing the high count may cause their own symptoms.
The symptoms of a low WBC count may prompt your doctor to recommend a WBC count. Its also normal for doctors to order a CBC and check your WBC count during an annual physical exam.
Don’t Miss: Blood Pressure Jumping Up And Down
Children More Than 2 Years Of Age And Adults
5,000 to 10,000/mm3
Higher-than-normal test results may indicate that you have an infection or sickness that your body is fighting. Lower-than-normal test results may indicate that your immune system is not operating as effectively as it should. This implies that even a little illness might result in major health complications.
What Abnormal Results Mean
LOW WBC COUNT
A low number of WBCs is called leukopenia. A count less than 4,500 cells per microliter is below normal.
Neutrophils are one type of WBC. They are important for fighting infections.
A lower than normal WBC count may be due to:
- Bone marrow deficiency or failure
- Cancer treating drugs, or other medicines
- Certain autoimmune disorders such as lupus ( SLE
- Disease of the liver or spleen
- Radiation treatment for cancer
- Certain viral illnesses, such as mononucleosis
- Cancers that damage the bone marrow
- Very severe bacterial infections
- Severe emotional or physical stress
HIGH WBC COUNT
A higher than normal WBC count is called leukocytosis. It may be due to:
- Certain drugs or medicines
- Cigarette smoking
- Infections, most often those caused by bacteria
- Inflammatory disease
There may also be less common reasons for abnormal WBC counts.
Drugs that may lower your WBC count include:
Drugs that may increase WBC counts include:
- Beta adrenergic agonists
You May Like: Surgery To Remove Blood Clot In Leg
What Is Low Lymphocytes In Blood Test
Lymphocytopenia, also referred to as lymphopenia, occurs when your lymphocyte count in your bloodstream is lower than normal. Severe or chronic low counts can indicate a possible infection or other signficant illness and should be investigated by your doctor. Lymphocytes are a kind of white blood cell.
What Your Complete Blood Cell Count Means
A complete blood cell count is a test that lets doctors look at your blood to get a better view of your overall health. The test measures the different components of your blood and their quantities especially red and white blood cells. Based on these numbers, doctors can identify certain health conditions.
Doctors dont always use a CBC to make a diagnosis, but its a good starting point. Abnormal numbers for any of the components could mean you have an underlying condition that needs further testing. Doctors can also use the results of a CBC to monitor a condition or figure out if a treatment for a condition is working.
Take a closer look at what information a CBC provides and how these tests are an important part of healthcare.
Don’t Miss: Increase Blood Flow In Penis
Understanding Red Blood Cells
Red blood cells carry fresh oxygen from your lungs throughout your body. They also carry carbon dioxide back to your lungs. These cells are made in your bone marrow, which is located in the center of your bones. Doctors can determine the overall health of your red blood cells by looking at their size and shape.
The average red blood cell count for healthy men is between 4.7 and 6.1 million cells per microliter. The average red blood cell count for healthy women is between 4.2 and 5.4 million cells per microliter, according to Healthline. There are some conditions or medications that can affect your red blood cell count. Thats why a CBC can help doctors learn if an abnormal number of red blood cells is the cause.
On a CBC, youll see the total measure of red blood cells along with measurements of hemoglobin and hematocrit. Both of these give your doctor a closer look at your red blood cells and the percentage of blood made up of red blood cells.
Types Of White Blood Cells
Among your white blood cells are:
Monocytes. They have a longer lifespan than many white blood cells and help to break down bacteria.
Lymphocytes. They create antibodies to fight against bacteria, viruses, and other potentially harmful invaders.
Neutrophils. They kill and digest bacteria and fungi. They are the most numerous type of white blood cell and your first line of defense when infection strikes.
Basophils. These small cells seem to sound an alarm when infectious agents invade your blood. They secrete chemicals such as histamine, a marker of allergic disease, that help control the body’s immune response.
Eosinophils. They attack and kill parasites and cancer cells, and help with allergic responses.
You May Like: Can Low Blood Sugar Cause Nausea
Medicines The Following Medicines May Help Increase Wbc Counts They Can Also Help Lower The Risk Of Or Treat Infection
Colony-stimulating factors are special medicines called growth factors. They stimulate, or help, the bone marrow to make white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets. Different types of growth factors stimulate the bone marrow to make different types of blood cells. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors stimulate the bone marrow to make granulocytes. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors stimulate the bone marrow to make granulocytes and macrophages. Granulocytes and macrophages are types of WBCs.
With some chemotherapy drugs, G-CSFs or GM-CSFs may be given to stimulate the bone marrow to produce more WBCs. Filgrastim and pegfilgrastim are examples of G-CSFs. Sargramostim is a GM-CSF that may be used to help reduce the chance of developing infection and keep chemotherapy on schedule.
White Blood Cell Count And Differential
White blood cells are an important part of your bodys immune system. Theyre responsible for protecting your body against infections and invading organisms. You have five types of white blood cells:
Each of these can be affected in different ways if you have a particular condition or disease.
A white blood cell count measures the number of white blood cells in your blood, and a WBC differential determines the percentage of each type of white blood cell present in your blood. A differential can also detect immature white blood cells and abnormalities, both of which are signs of potential issues.
A WBC count can also be called a leukocyte count, and a WBC differential can also be called a leukocyte differential count.
Your doctor may request a WBC count and differential if they suspect you have one of several conditions, including:
Both tests can help your doctor determine if your symptoms are due to high or low WBC levels, which will help them understand what condition you may have. WBC counts can also be used to monitor certain disease processes and illnesses.
Understanding White Blood Cells
White blood cells are the components of your blood that fight off infections. These cells make up a small part of your blood, but their job is important. Like red blood cells, these are also made in the bone marrow. There are several different types of white blood cells, and each has a different job. Some fight off parasites. Others attack bacteria and others combat viruses. Others work to make antibodies.
If you have a high number of white blood cells in your blood, then that signals to your doctor that your body is fighting off some sort of infection or inflammation. If your white blood cell count is low, then your body doesnt have the defenses it needs to fight off infections. The normal range for a healthy person is 4,500 to 10,000 white blood cells per microliter of blood.
Foods That Increase Wbc Counts
If your white blood cell level is low, there are changes you can make to try to increase it. Always consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new treatments, including diets, that may disrupt your WBC count. Very low WBCs are medical emergencies that require prompt treatment.
A healthy diet, rich in vegetables, and protein is a good way to maintain a healthy immune system.
A Mediterranean diet, which consists of whole grains fruits and vegetables beans, nuts, and seeds healthy fats moderate amounts of fish and poultry and limited amounts of red meat, has been shown to help boost white blood cell levels. Foods such as blueberries, strawberries, and leafy green vegetables can help reduce the risk of developing certain immune disorders. These whole foods are a good source of antioxidants, which can help support the function of a healthy immune system.
As much as possible, look to get your nutrients and antioxidants from foods. You should consult with a healthcare professional before starting any supplements.
Don’t Miss: Why Is Donating Blood Important
Elevated White Blood Cell Counts
Infections usually cause an elevated white blood cell count, but there are also other possible causes. WBC counts can be increased by overproduction. In other words, the body may release white blood cells early from the bone marrow.
Stress of any form can result in this release of white blood cells. Some causes of an increased white blood cell count include:
- Cancers such as leukemias, lymphomas, and myelomas, in which a greater number of white blood cells are manufactured
- Asthma and allergies
In severe infections, immature white blood cells called blasts may be present. Blasts often appear when the body attempts to get white blood cells on the scene quickly.
What Are The Symptoms Of Low White Blood Cell Count
Abnormally low white blood cell levels could lead to higher risk of infection of any kind. A low white cell count itself does not directly produce any symptoms, but a patient who is immunocompromised as the result of significant leukopenia and then develops an infection may experience symptoms associated with that infection, such as fever, localized pain, fatigue, muscle ache, loss of appetite and general malaise.
Read Also: Is 140 Over 80 High Blood Pressure
Recommended Reading: Blood Sugar Converted To A1c
Is 18000 High For White Blood Cells
The specific number for high white blood cell count varies from one lab testing facility to another, but a general rule of thumb is that a count of more than 10,500 leukocytes in a microliter of blood in adults is generally considered to be high, while 4,500-10,500 is considered within the normal range.
How To Increase Wbc Levels Naturally
White Blood Cells are responsible for multiple body functions. So, maintaining healthy levels in the body is necessary, above anything else. If your WBC levels are chronically less, lifestyle and dietary changes can help proactively.
Following are some ways how to increase WBC count naturally in the blood.
Also Check: Gauge Of Needle For Blood Donation