What Does It Mean If Your Monocyte Levels Are High
Along with other types of white blood cells, monocytes are a key element of your immune response. High levels can result from a range of issues, including leukemia, radiotherapy, spleen removal, and tuberculosis .
However, it is worth noting that doctors need to interpret monocyte levels in the context of other factors and tests. Just having a high monocyte level is not enough to diagnose any health issue.
Lets take a closer look at monocytes, their role in keeping you healthy, and what it means when your monocyte levels are high.
What Are The Stages Of A Blood Test
A blood test is a test where a small amount of blood is taken from your vein. This test is then sent to a lab where its inspected and analyzed. Blood tests come in a number of different types. These include a complete blood count , a basic metabolic panel , and a lipid panel . Blood tests are used to check a number of different things. This includes checking the levels of your bloods red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Blood tests are also used to check your thyroid, liver and kidney function, and your glucose levels. Blood tests are also a great way to check for early signs of various diseases, such as HIV, anemia, or diabetes.
Why Is This Analysis Important
Monocytes are the largest of the white blood cells and are about twiceTrusted Source the size of red blood cells. These powerful defenders arent plentiful in the bloodstream but theyre vital in protecting the body against infection.
Monocytes move throughout the bloodstream to the tissues in the body. They rest until needed and then transform into macrophages or dendritic cells. These are both different kinds of white blood cells.
Dendritic cells use receptors to show the antigens to other immune system cells. They can cause monocytes to travel through the body to the affected tissues.
Macrophages kill microorganisms and fight cancer cells. They also work with other white blood cells to remove dead cells and support the bodys immune system against foreign substances and infections.
One way macrophages do this is by signalling to other cell types that there is an infection. Together, several types of white blood cells then work to fight off the infection.
What are some of the causes of a high monocyte count?
Common conditions that could lead to a spike in abs monocytes can include:
What are some of the causes of a low monocyte count?
Low levels of monocytes tend to develop as a result of medical conditions that lower your overall white blood cell count or disease treatments that suppress the immune system.
Causes of low absolute monocyte count can include:
Chemotherapy and radiation therapy, which can injure bone marrow
HIV and AIDS, which weaken the bodys immune system
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Differentiation Into Other Effector Cells
Monocytes can migrate into tissues and replenish resident macrophage populations. Macrophages have a high antimicrobial and phagocytic activity and thereby protect tissues from foreign substances. They are cells that possess a large smooth nucleus, a large area of cytoplasm, and many internal vesicles for processing foreign material. Although they can be derived from monocytes, a large proportion is already formed prenatally in the yolk sac and foetal liver.
In vitro, monocytes can differentiate into dendritic cells by adding the cytokines granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin 4. Such monocyte-derived cells do, however, retain the signature of monocytes in their transcriptome and they cluster with monocytes and not with bona fide dendritic cells.
Normal Range For Monocytes
The number of white blood cells and the percentage of different types of white blood cells have an accepted normal range. Monocytes are measured as an absolute number per cubic millimeter and as a percentage of white blood cells.
|Normal Levels of Monocytes and White Blood Cells|
Your monocyte number can be a valuable tool for diagnosing disease. It is also important to look at this number and percentage considering other blood cell measurements.
Some medical issues that cause monocytosis may also cause anemia , thrombocytopenia , or high or low numbers of other types of white blood cells.
The World Health Organization defines persistent monocytosis as an absolute monocyte count of more than 1,000 per cu Mm, with monocytes accounting for more than 10% of white blood cells and persisting for longer than three months.
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What Does A High Monocyte Count Mean
A high monocyte count â also called monocytosis â is often associated with chronic or sub-acute infections. It can also be linked with some types of cancer, especially leukemia. A high monocyte count can occur when you are recovering from an acute infection.
Some conditions that can cause monocytosis include:
- Endocarditis, a heart valve infection
- Tuberculosis, a lung infection
- Hematologic disorders, which affect your blood
What Is A Monocyte Count
Monocytes are a type of white blood cell that comes from bone marrow. They can become either macrophage cells or dendritic cells.
Monocytes, along with other kinds of white blood cells, help the body fight disease and infection. When they become dendritic cells, they play a part in launching the inflammatory and anti-inflammatory processes that are part of your bodys immune response to infection. As macrophage cells, they can destroy microorganisms and foreign material, get rid of dead cells, and boost the bodys immune response.
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Can High Monocytes Be Normal
What causes your monocyte level to be higher than normal? When your monocyte level is high known as monocytosis it means your body is fighting something. Some conditions that can cause an increase in the monocytes in your blood are: viral infections, such as infectious mononucleosis, mumps, and measles.
Does Covid 19 Cause High Monocytes
Furthermore, increased proliferation of monocytes derived from patients with severe COVID-19 after in vitro challenge with lipopolysaccharide was discussed as an indicator for a release of immature myeloid cells from the bone marrow reminiscent of emergency myelopoiesis and contributing to innate immune …
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The Front Lines Of Your Immunity
Monocytes are the largest type of white blood cell. Approximately 2 to 10% of white blood cells are monocytes .
These immune cells circulate in the blood for several days before they enter the tissues, where they become macrophages or dendritic cells .
Monocytes protect against viral, bacterial, fungal, and protozoal infections. They kill microorganisms, ingest foreign particles, remove dead cells, and boost the immune response .
However, they can also be involved in the development of inflammatory diseases like arthritis and atherosclerosis. In this post, well take a closer look at how monocytes work and how they may be implicated in disease .
How To Keep Monocytes In The Healthy Range
Monocytes are an important part of the bodys innate immune system. Although you may not be directly able to influence your monocyte count, there are some healthy lifestyle choices you can make to help keep them within normal parameters.
Nutrition is an important aspect of our immune status and deficiency in some nutrients can weaken the system. It is essential to eat a healthy, balanced diet incorporating the following macronutrients:
- vitamins a, c, e and b6
Smoking has also been implicated in damaging the immune system. Therefore, it is important to stop smoking if you currently do, particularly as the damage is reversible if you quit.
Exercise is key to a healthy lifestyle. However, participating in intense exercising can cause immunodepression during recovery. One exercise bout can change the white blood cell composition and this can remain changed even during recovery. Therefore, it is essential to have enough rest between exercise sessions to prevent illness and injury.
Because monocytes are part of the innate system there are certain things you can do to help prevent pathogens from entering your body. For example, always remember to wash your hands after visiting the lavatory as well as before and after handling food. Equally, keeping yourself hydrated can help to prevent illness. You should aim to drink approximately 2 litres of water per day.
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What Are The Risks
Blood: During a blood draw, a hematoma or slight bleeding from the puncture site may occur. After a blood draw, a bruise or infection may occur at the puncture site. The person doing this test may need to perform it more than once. Talk to your healthcare worker if you have any concerns about the risks of this test.
How Are Monocytes Tested
To know how many monocytes are circulating in your blood, youll need a blood differential test. This test determines the level of each type of white blood cell in your blood. It can also tell if some types of white blood cells are atypical or immature.
The blood differential test is done the same way as most other blood tests. A medical professional will draw a sample of blood from a vein in your arm. You do not have to fast or do anything in preparation for this test.
Once your blood is drawn, a special dye helps the pathologist count the different types of white blood cells in your blood sample.
Its a test your doctor might order with a complete blood count to help diagnose infection or conditions, like anemia and leukemia.
Treatment of elevated monocytes depends on the cause. Your doctor may have to do more tests to determine the underlying cause.
Generally, treatment may include the following:
- Treatment for viral infections usually focuses on symptom management.
- Antibiotics can treat many bacterial infections, such as TB.
- There are many types of parasitic diseases. Youll likely need other lab tests to determine the exact cause before the correct medication can be prescribed.
Treatment for blood cancers can include:
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What Is The Role Of Monocytes In The Body
Monocytes are a type of leukocytes or WBCs . They prevent infections by killing invading pathogens. They also stimulate and regulate lymphocyte production.
Monocytes present in the blood are between the 2% and 8% of the total WBCs detected in the blood.
Monocytes kill foreign pathogens that may attack the body, act as phagocytes in some chronic inflammatory diseases and play a critical role in tissue development and injury repair.
The presence of monocytes in the blood is brief because they are usually located in the tissues where they act as macrophages, killing pathogens such as viruses, bacteria or fungi.
Vitamin B12 Deficiency Or Anemia
A vitamin B12 deficiency can cause low absolute monocyte count in a regular complete blood cell count lab test. If the low mono count is due to a vitamin B12 deficiency you will also show signs of anemia like lack of energy, brain fog, muscle weakness, or mood swings.
The journal Seminars in Hematology reported that issues with bone marrow production can cause a low red blood cell count. This can result in increased mean corpuscular red blood cell volume as well as monocytopenia. The journal said that causes of this type of anemia include viral infections, nutritional deficiencies, smoking, or overindulgence in alcohol.13
For more information on how to resolve a vitamin B12 deficiency, please read my article on how to increase levels of vitamin B12 naturally.
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Statistical Analysis And Logistic Regression Regularization
Categorical variables are expressed as a percentage and continuous variables are expressed as medians and interquartile ranges . The chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables, and the MannWhitney U test was used to compare continuous variables. Restricted cubic splines served as a flexible tool for modeling and presenting complex, nonlinear relationships between continuous values of WBC types and AECOPD. The P values in nonlinear regression were calculated using likelihood ratio tests that compared the model with only a linear term against the model with linear and cubic spline terms.
What Are Normal Results For This Test
Laboratory test results may vary depending on your age, gender, health history, the method used for the test, and many other factors. If your results are different from the results suggested below, this may not mean that you have a disease. Contact your healthcare worker if you have any questions. The following are considered to be normal results for this test:
- Complete blood count with white cell differential, manual
- Evaluation of bone marrow myeloid cells
- Peripheral blood smear interpretation
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Oscillation Of Blood Monocyte Levels
A low amplitude oscillation of the absolute blood monocyte count was described by Meuret in young male students. When sampled at the same time each day, fluctuations in the monocyte count resulted in a series of maxima and minima with a modal periodicity of 5 days . This behavior corresponds in type to oscillations in the blood counts reported for neutrophils and thrombocytes in man and reticulocytes in dogs , although the oscillatory period is shorter among monocytes. The phenomenon has been attributed to the presence of a regulatory mechanism of a negative feedback loop linking the peripheral blood cell compartment and the stem cell differentiation rate. A time delay largely due to the bone marrow transit time from stem cell to egress into the blood would be inherent in such a system and could account for the oscillatory nature of the blood monocyte level .
Nancy Berliner, in, 2012
Monocytes In The Spleen
A good number of human monocytes move into the tissues of your body where they help make the macrophages that fight infection and clean up dead cells.
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What Are Common Treatments For Monocyte Conditions
Treatment is dependent on your diagnosis and the severity of your condition. It could be as simple as changing your diet or as significant as treating an underlying condition with chemotherapy. Your healthcare provider will offer treatment options specific to your diagnosis to help you decide on the best way to either increase or decrease your monocyte count.
How do I reduce my high monocyte count?
Treatment to reduce your high monocyte count includes:
- Avoiding foods that cause inflammation like red meats, refined carbohydrates and fried foods.
- Exercising regularly.
Absolute Monocytes High Count
An increased number of monocytes in the blood occur in response to chronic infections, in autoimmune disorders, in blood disorders, and in certain cancers. An increase in the number of macrophages in parts of the body other than in the blood can occur in response to infections, sarcoidosis, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
What Tests Are Done To Diagnose Leukemia
A blood test showing an abnormal white cell count may suggest the diagnosis. To confirm the diagnosis and identify the specific type of leukemia, a needle biopsy and aspiration of bone marrow from a pelvic bone will need to be done to test for leukemic cells, DNA markers, and chromosome changes in the bone marrow.
How Is A High Monocyte Count Treated
The treatment for monocytosis will depend on the cause. Monocytosis itself is only a symptom and doesn’t require treatment. Treating the underlying cause will resolve the monocytosis. A high monocyte count can have a wide range of causes. Your doctor may do additional tests to help determine the cause of your monocytosis. Once the cause is determined, you will be given an appropriate treatment plan if needed.
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What Are Monocytes And What Are Their Functions In The Body
As we mentioned, monocytes are a type of white blood cell, which we therefore find present in the blood circulation. White blood cells are part of our bodys immune system, and among other very important functions, they help the body fight infections and other types of diseases.
Monocytes differ from other white blood cells such as granulocytes and lymphocytes in their size, since they stand out precisely for being leukocytes with a larger than normal size.
They are formed in the bone marrow, where they tend to live between 3 to 4 days, until they finally concentrate in the blood tissues and in certain organs of the body.
In the particular case of monocytes, being part of the immune system, they are responsible for helping the body eliminate foreign microorganisms, as well as dead cells. Therefore, when a monocyte blood test is performed, the most common is that its value varies depending on how our bodys defenses are.
How Is A High Monocyte Count Measured
Monocytes are measured with a blood test called a white blood count differential. It’s often part of a complete blood count . A CBC does tests on the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in your blood. A CBC is a routine part of an annual physical exam. If the result shows a high or low white blood count, your doctor may order a WBC differential test.
A CBC with WBC differential tells your healthcare provider how many of each of the five types of white blood cells you have. It tells if the number of white blood cells you have is in normal in proportion to each other, if there are more or less of them than normal, and if any abnormal or immature white blood cells are present.
A WBC differential is done by collecting a sample of your blood from a vein or by pricking your finger. No special preparation is needed for this test.
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