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What Is High Blood Glucose Level

Low Blood Sugar Symptoms

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Low blood sugar, also called hypoglycemia, is what happens when blood glucose levels drop too low. People who take insulin may have low blood sugar if they take too much insulin or mistime the insulin dose in relation to food, or if they exercise more than usual when there is fast-acting insulin on board .

Your healthcare provider will tell you when and how to check blood sugar, and when and how to treat low blood sugar. A low blood sugar is generally considered to be less than 70 mg/dL. A dangerously low blood sugar is below 54 mg/dL.

Low blood sugar can also be caused by many things including certain medications or combinations of medications, alcohol, endocrine disorders, eating disorders, and disorders of the liver, kidneys, or heart.

Here are some of the most common symptoms that someone with low blood sugar might experience:

  • Lightheadedness
  • Tingling lips

If your blood sugar is low you might start to feel some of the first signs of hypoglycemia like dizziness, lightheadedness, or sweating. The only way to know for sure if your blood sugar is low is to test it with a glucose meter or monitor it with a continuous glucose monitor such as the Dexcom G6.

For People With Type 2 Diabetes

It is normal for blood glucose levels to go up and down throughout the day. An occasional high blood glucose level is not a problem. But if your blood glucose level remains high for a few days or if you are sick, contact your doctor or Credentialed Diabetes Educator.

If not treated, high blood glucose levels can be dangerous and lead to Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Find out more here:

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  • How Do I Decrease My Blood Sugar Level?
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    What Is The A1c Test

    The A1C test is a simple blood test that measures your average blood sugar levels over the past 2 or 3 months. The test is done at a lab or your doctors office in addition tonot instead ofregular blood sugar testing you do yourself.

    A1C testing is part of the ABCs of diabetesimportant steps you can take to prevent or delay health complications down the road:

    The A1C goal for most adults with diabetes is between 7% and 8%, but your goal may be different depending on your age, other health conditions, medicines youre taking, and other factors. Work with your doctor to establish a personal A1C goal for you.

    Hba1c Test For Diabetes Diagnosis

    An HbA1c test does not directly measure the level of blood glucose, however, the result of the test is influenced by how high or low your blood glucose levels have tended to be over a period of 2 to 3 months.

    Indications of diabetes or prediabetes are given under the following conditions:

    • Normal: Below 42 mmol/mol
    • Prediabetes: 42 to 47 mmol/mol
    • Diabetes: 48 mmol/mol

    There are two types of blood sugar levels that may be measured. The first is the blood glucose level we get from doing finger prick blood glucose tests. These give us a reading of how high our levels are at that very point in time.

    The second is the HbA1c reading, which gives a good idea of our average control over a period of 2 to 3 months. The target blood glucose levels vary a little bit depending on your type of diabetes and between adults and children.

    Where possible, try to achieve levels of between 4 and 7 mmol/L before meals and under 8.5 mmol/L after meals. The target level for HbA1c is under 48 mmol/mol .

    Research has shown that high blood glucose levels over time can lead to organ and circulation damage.

    Keeping blood glucose above 4 mmol/l for people on insulin or certain medications for type 2 diabetes is important to prevent hypos occurring, which can be dangerous.

    Your doctor may give you different targets. Children, older people and those at particular risk of hypoglycemia may be given wider targets.

    FREE blood glucose level chart

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    How Does Blood Sugar Level Work

    With a lack of nutrients and food that contain glucose, the blood sugar level will begin to decline. This is known as hypoglycemia.

    After blood sugar becomes low, the pancreas releases a peptide hormone called glucagon. When this happens, the glucose that is stored in the body for energy is instructed to release due to the liver. This causes the glucose to turn into glycogen, known as the glycogenesis process. This is what can help a body to regain energy as the readily stored glycogen, in the liver and muscles, will release into the body.

    On the other hand, the blood sugar can also rise and become too high which is known as hyperglycemia.

    When the body does not produce enough of the insulin hormone, blood sugar levels begin to increase. This is because glucose relies on the insulin hormone to help it absorb into the bloodstream. Usually, this occurs when the body cannot produce enough insulin, known as type 1 diabetes, or does not respond to insulin correctly, known as type 2 diabetes.

    Eating too many processed foods can also cause your blood sugar level to rise. If there is not enough insulin present in the body, too much bad food can cause your blood sugar level to build up.

    For those with a normal blood sugar level, this will be due to eating the right foods and your body being able to produce and respond to insulin.

    You may be wondering what exactly causes an imbalance in blood sugar levels, so here is a roundup:

    The Danger Of High Blood Sugar

    What Is High Blood Sugar Levels | Blood Glucose Levels Explained

    Having a high blood sugar means there is too much sugar in the blood because the body is lacking in insulin. This can happen for many reasons, including not taking enough insulin exogenously, too little exercise, eating too much, or even stress, hormonal changes, or lack of sleep.

    High blood sugar is dangerous, but its important to remember that high blood sugar is mostly dangerous over prolonged periods of time .

    This means that, for the most part, your blood sugar at diagnosis will not cause long-term complications, and the spike you saw last week from eating an ice cream sundae wont impact you over the long term.

    But chronic, prolonged high blood sugars will cause diabetes complications in most people.

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    How Can One Tell If I Have Diabetes By Examining My Blood

    Your body converts sugar, also called glucose, into energy so your body can function. The sugar comes from the foods you eat and is released from storage from your bodys own tissues.

    Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas. Its job is to move glucose from the bloodstream into the cells of tissues. After you eat, the level of glucose in the blood rises sharply. The pancreas responds by releasing enough insulin to handle the increased level of glucose moving the glucose out of the blood and into cells. This helps return the blood glucose level to its former, lower level.

    If a person has diabetes, two situations may cause the blood sugar to increase:

    • The pancreas does not make enough insulin
    • The insulin does not work properly

    As a result of either of these situations, the blood sugar level remains high, a condition called hyperglycemia or diabetes mellitus. If left undiagnosed and untreated, the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, blood vessels and other organs can be damaged. Measuring your blood glucose levels allows you and your doctor to know if you have, or are at risk for, developing diabetes.

    Much less commonly, the opposite can happen too. Too low a level of blood sugar, a condition called hypoglycemia, can be caused by the presence of too much insulin or by other hormone disorders or liver disease.

    What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    When the body doesn’t have enough insulin, glucose stays in the blood and can’t get into the body’s cells to be used for energy. This can happen, for example, when someone skips doses of insulin or when the need for insulin suddenly increases and the doses are not adjusted.

    When the body can’t use glucose for fuel, it starts to use fat. When this happens, chemicals called ketones are released into the blood. Some of these ketones, like extra glucose, pass out of the body through the urine.

    High levels of ketones in the blood can be a problem because they cause the blood to become acidic. Too much acid in the blood throws off the body’s chemical balance and causes the symptoms listed below. In people with diabetes, this problem is called diabetic , or DKA. DKA is a very serious condition that can lead to coma or death if it’s not treated. The good news, though, is that it’s preventable and can be treated.

    DKA happens more often in people with type 1 diabetes, but can sometimes also happen to those with type 2 diabetes.

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    Eat The Right Carbohydrates

    The two main kinds of carbohydrates simple and complex affect blood sugar levels differently.

    Simple carbohydrates are mainly made up of one kind of sugar. They are found in foods, such as white bread, pasta, and candy. The body breaks these carbohydrates down into sugar very quickly, which causes blood sugar levels to rise rapidly.

    Complex carbohydrates are made up of three or more sugars that are linked together. Because the chemical makeup of these kinds of carbohydrates is complicated, it takes the body longer to break them down.

    As a result, sugar is released into the body more gradually, meaning that blood sugar levels do not rapidly rise after eating them. Examples of complex carbohydrates include whole grain oats and sweet potatoes.

    What Is High Blood Glucose

    14 Symptoms That Indicate You Have Very High Blood Sugar Levels  01 ...

    People who do not have diabetes typically have fasting plasma blood glucose levels that run under 100 mg/dl.

    Your physician will define for you what your target blood glucose should be identifying a blood glucose target that is as close to normal as possible that you can safely achieve given your overall medical health. In general, high blood glucose, also called ‘hyperglycemia’, is considered “high” when it is 160 mg/dl or above your individual blood glucose target. Be sure to ask your healthcare provider what he or she thinks is a safe target for you for blood glucose before and after meals.

    If your blood glucose runs high for long periods of time, this can pose significant problems for your long-term increased risk of complications, such as eye disease, kidney disease, heart attacks and strokes and more. High blood glucose can pose health problems in the short-term as well. Your treatment plan may need adjustment if the blood glucose stays over 180 mg/dl for 3 days in a row. It is important to aim to keep your blood glucose under control and treat hyperglycemia when it occurs.

    • Increased thirst
    • Slow healing cuts and sores
    • Unexplained weight loss
    • Too much food
    • Too little exercise or physical activity
    • Skipped or not enough diabetes pills or insulin
    • Insulin that has spoiled after being exposed to extreme heat or freezing cold
    • Stress, illness, infection, injury or surgery
    • A blood glucose meter that is not reading accurately

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    How Can I Prevent Hyperglycaemia

    To reduce your risk of severe or prolonged hyperglycaemia:

    • monitor your blood glucose level regularly
    • be careful with what you eat be particularly aware of how snacking and eating sugary foods or carbohydrates can affect your blood glucose levels
    • stick to your management plan take diabetes medicines as and when directed
    • be as active as possible getting regular exercise can help stop your blood glucose level rising, but you should check with your doctor first if you’re taking diabetes medication, as some medicines can lead to hypoglycaemia if you exercise too much.
    • take extra care when you’re ill see our page on having a diabetes sick day plan.

    Risk Factors For High Blood Sugar

    Doctors do not know exactly what causes diabetes. Some factors may increase the risk, however.

    Type 1 diabetes

    Researchers believe certain genetic or environmental factors may make people more likely to get type 1 diabetes.

    The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases say certain genes play a role, and other factors such as viruses and infections may have an impact.

    The Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation say that there is nothing a person can do to prevent type 1 diabetes. Eating, exercise, or other lifestyle choices will not change the outcome.

    Type 1 diabetes usually begins during childhood or early adulthood, but it can happen at any age.

    Type 2 diabetes

    People who have high blood sugar should discuss their target levels with their doctor.

    They may need regular testing to keep these within a healthy range. Each person is different and levels can vary between individuals.

    To find out their blood sugar levels, the person may need to fast for 8 hours, 2 hours after a meal, or at both times.

    Some people may also take a glucose tolerance test, in which they drink a sugary liquid and have a blood test after.

    The American Diabetes Association recommend a pre-meal blood sugar level of 80130 milligrams per deciliter . Around 1 to 2 hours after the beginning of a meal, blood sugar should be less than 180 ml/dL.

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    How To Control Blood Sugar With Exercise

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