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What Is Esr On Blood Test

What Can Esr Detect

ESR test in Hindi (erythrocyte sedimentation rate test)

ESR tests detect inflammation in the body, making them useful for detecting the presence of many diseases. These diseases include arthritis , infection, rheumatic fever, vascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, heart disease, arteritis , kidney disease, and certain cancers, polycythemia, sickle cell anemia, leukocytosis , and autoimmune diseases such as lupus.

Sed Rate By Modified Westergren Most Popular

The Sed Rate by Modified Westergren test contains 1 test with 1 biomarker.

Description:Sed Rate is a blood test that is used to measure the rate that red blood cells fall to the bottom of a test tube. The measurement is based how many cells fall within one hour. This test can be used to determine infection or inflammation.

Also Known As:Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Test, ESR Test, Sed Rate Test, Sedimentation Rate Test, Westergren Sedimentation Rate Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Sed Rate test ordered?

When a condition or disease is believed to be causing inflammation in the body, an ESR may be ordered. Several inflammatory illnesses can be identified using this test. It may be requested, for example, if arthritis is suspected of producing joint inflammation and pain, or if inflammatory bowel disease is suspected of causing digestive symptoms.

When a person develops symptoms of polymyalgia rheumatica, systemic vasculitis, or temporal arteritis, such as headaches, neck or shoulder discomfort, anemia, pelvic pain, poor appetite, joint stiffness, and unexplained weight loss, a doctor may recommend an ESR. To follow the development of specific illnesses, the sed rate test can also be routinely ordered.

A health practitioner may wish to repeat the ESR before undertaking a full workup to look for disease.

What does a Sed Rate blood test check for?

Lab tests often ordered with a Sed Rate test:

  • C-Reactive Protein

Why Would I Need This Test

You might need an ESR test if your doctor suspects that you have an infection or an illness related to inflammation. As ESR is not specific, other tests might be needed to identify the location and cause of the inflammation or infection.

ESR is particularly useful in detecting two specific illnesses: giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica.

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The Esr Blood Test: An Explanation

The erythrocytes are the fully grown blood cells that have hemoglobin which facilitates the process of carrying oxygen from the lungs to the various organs and tissues of the body. Therefore, the name i.e. erythrocyte sedimentation rate or ESR itself conveys the meaning, which refers to the sedimentation process of the erythrocytes.

The ESR test commences with the collection of a sample of blood that is drawn from the vein in the arm of the patient. The blood sample is then placed in a tube which is left in an upright arrangement without any further disturbance.

Over the course of time the red blood cells start descending at their own pace. This pace or rate of descent of the red blood cells in an hour is what determines the ESR value. The ESR value is reported and measured in mm/hr or millimeters per hour. In other words, the distance that is travelled by the red blood cells in one hour comprises the ESR value.

When the body is afflicted by any form of inflammation, then it leads to excessive proportion of fibrinogen. This causes the red blood cells to attach to one another. Afterwards, the blood cells produce stacks called rouleaux. Such substances have a general tendency to descend faster. Hence, the faster the red blood cells settle, the greater are the chances of increased inflammation in the body.

Why Else Could Sedimentation Rate Be Elevated

Packages  Dr. Jain

Overweight and obese people, along with older adults, tend to have naturally higher baseline sedimentation rates, says Dr. Schulz, so a high ESR doesnt necessarily signal a problem in those groups. Someone might have a higher level that is natural to them, he says. It might look abnormal, but its not.

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What Might Be The Reasons For A High Esr Level

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Test, known more popularly by its acronym ESR Test, is a test that is based on the rate of settling of RBCs – also known as erythrocytes, to the bottom of a test tube. This settling is called sedimentation, and is standardly measured in millimetres per hour .

During an ESR test, when your blood is placed in a tall test tube, RBCs gradually settle to the bottom. Inflammation, however, can cause these cells to form clumps. And since these clumps are significantly thicker and denser than individual cells, they settle to the bottom more quickly, and this is accordingly reported in the ESR test results.

The primary objective of an ESR Test is to diagnose inflammation in the body. Abnormal ESR test results may arise from a number of different reasons, and thats why when you book a blood test online, an ESR Test is often paired along for enhanced diagnostic accuracy.

What Do I Do If I Have High Esr Levels

The best thing to do after receiving a report showing high ESR levels is to wait for your physician to make an accurate diagnosis based on your other tests, gender, age, and overall health. Just because you have high ESR levels is not an accurate assessment of an underlying disease or condition in your body.

For the doctor to make an accurate assessment, it is imperative to provide correct information about your medical history and any medicines you are on as certain supplements can affect your ESR levels. The normal range of ESR levels is subject to change based on the labs, the tested person, and gender.

Not just that, a moderate ESR level may be an indicator of pregnancy or menstruation rather than an inflammatory disease, making it necessary for the physicians diagnosis rather than just the ESR levels. Your physician may also consider ordering more tests to make an accurate diagnosis.


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Causes Of Low Esr Levels

The ESR levels in your test report may be low because of the following reasons:

  • Hypofibrinogenemia, that is, the presence of little fibrinogen in the blood
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Low plasma protein caused due to the liver or kidney disease
  • Polycythemia vera, that is, the production of excessive RBCs caused due to a bone marrow disorder
  • Leukocytosis, that is, increased levels of white blood cells
  • Sickle cell anaemia

What Is Being Tested

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) What Does This Lab Test Really Mean?

Inflammation causes red blood cells to stick to each other and form clumps. These clumps are heavier than normal individual red blood cells.

In an ESR, blood is put into a test tube and allowed to settle. If there is inflammation, the red blood cells will clump together and fall quickly to the bottom of the tube. If there is no inflammation, the red blood cells will settle more slowly. Either way, there is a column of clear liquid at the top of the tube.

The ESR measures the height of the column of plasma after 1 hour. A low reading means not many cells have settled, which suggests no inflammation. A high reading means a lot of cells have settled, which suggest inflammation.

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What Is The Normal Range For Esr Levels

High ESR levels correspond to high protein levels in the blood that cause faster clumping of RBCs.

The ESR test measures in millimetres the distance between the clear liquid at the top of the tube and your red blood cells after an hour. The normal range is:

  • 0 to 15 mm/hour in men whose age is < 50 years
  • 0 to 20 mm/hour in men > 50 years of age
  • 0 to 20 mm/hour in women < 50 years of age
  • 0 to 30 mm/hour for women above 50 years of age

How Do Doctors Use The Esr Test To Monitor Your Disease

Watching inflammation levels may help doctors measure disease activity as they gauge how well a certain treatment is working. A study of 1,800 systemic lupus patients found that changes in sedimentation rate were linked with changes in disease activity, but other research has shown conflicting results. I have some patients who have very aggressive lupus flares or autoinflammatory flares, and the sedimentation rate can be completely normal, says Dr. Schulz.

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Extreme Elevation Of The Esr

An extreme elevation of the ESR is associated with a low false-positive rate for a serious underlying disease.22,23 The conditions found in this situation have varied in individual populations, depending on patient age and inpatient versus outpatient status. In most series, infection has been the leading cause of an extremely elevated value, followed by collagen vascular disease and metastatic malignant tumors.22 Renal disease has also been a notable etiologic factor.3

Because most of these conditions are clinically apparent, any tests performed should be clinically driven. For instance, if symptoms of infection are present, the appropriate cultures, including urine and blood, and skin testing for tuberculosis should be obtained.22,23 An exhaustive search for an occult malignancy should not be undertaken because, if cancer is present, it is almost always metastatic.1,3

No obvious cause is apparent in fewer than 2 percent of patients with a markedly elevated ESR. In such patients, the history and physical examination coupled with readily available tests will usually establish the etiology. Because a notable number of patients with an ESR greater than 100 mm per hour have myeloma or some other type of dysproteinemia, urine and serum protein electrophoretic studies should be included in the testing.3

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How Should We Prepare For An Esr Test

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Test Esr Inflammation Stock Vector ...

Your child should be able to eat and drink normally unless also getting other tests that require fasting beforehand. Tell your doctor about any medicines your child takes because some drugs might affect the test results.

Wearing a T-shirt or short-sleeved shirt for the test can make things easier for your child, and you also can bring along a toy or book as a distraction.

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When Should I Get An Erythrocyte Sedimentation Test

An ESR test may be appropriate if you have unexplained symptoms like a fever, muscle or joint pain, or other problems without a clear cause. In these situations, an ESR is usually combined with other tests, such as a complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, and arthritis tests, to evaluate your overall health and look for signs of specific health problems.

Your doctor may also recommend an ESR test to help track your health if you have previously been diagnosed or received treatment for infections, autoimmune diseases, or other inflammatory health conditions.

What Is The Normal Range Of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate

The ESR medical abbreviation for erythrocyte sedimentation rate depends on various factors like medicines you use, old age, menstrual cycle, and pregnancy. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is defined as the distance between the plasma and the red blood cells in millimetres observed after 1hour. The ESR blood test normal range as per your age and gender are tabulated below:

0 30 mm/hour

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How Is The Test Used

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is a relatively simple, inexpensive, non-specific test that has been used for many years to help detect inflammation associated with conditions such as infections, cancers, and autoimmune diseases.

ESR is said to be a non-specific test because an elevated result often indicates the presence of inflammation but does not tell the health practitioner exactly where the inflammation is in the body or what is causing it. An ESR can be affected by other conditions besides inflammation. For this reason, the ESR is typically used in conjunction with other tests, such as C-reactive protein.

ESR is used to help diagnose certain specific inflammatory diseases, including temporal arteritis, systemic vasculitis and polymyalgia rheumatica. A significantly elevated ESR is one of the main test results used to support the diagnosis.

This test may also be used to monitor disease activity and response to therapy in both of the above diseases as well as some others, such as lupus.

Why Esr Test Is Done

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)- what does the ESR tell you? Simply Explained.

ESR test verifies the presence of one or more types of conditions, including infections, tumours, inflammation, and those leading to the breakdown or decreased the function of tissue or organs , and/or to asses the progress of disease or effect of therapy.

ESR helps in identifying two specific inflammatory diseases, temporal arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica.

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Normal Range Of Esr Found Among Men : 0

Ideal values of ESR depending on age :


*Ideal values are calculated based on our database of patient records

If you want your blood test report to be interpreted by ESR specialist, you can upload your report. Our ESR expert will provide you with the most accurate interpretation of your blood test results and treatment within 12 hours. Upload blood test report now

Some examples of conditions that increase or decrease ESR levels include:

  • Rheumatic fever
  • Inflammatory bowel disease

If you want your blood test report to be interpreted by ESR specialist, you can upload your report. Our ESR expert will provide you with the most accurate interpretation of your blood test results and treatment within 12 hours. Upload blood test report now

Specimen Requirements And Procedure

The Westergren method involves a simple blood draw that should take only a minute or two to obtain. A phlebotomist or other health care professional will obtain the blood sample. The skin directly over a vein is cleaned. Then, a needle is inserted into the vein to collect blood. After collecting, the needle is removed, and the puncture site is covered with a dressing to stop any bleeding.

Blood is typically collected in a black top ESR vacuum tube that contains a 3.2% sodium citrate anticoagulant. Whole blood collected in a lavender EDTA tube is also acceptable. The sample must be in its own tube and cannot be combined with other tests due to the volume required.

The blood sample will be sent to a laboratory. A lab technician will then transfer the anticoagulated whole blood to a vertical test tube , which is inserted into the vacuum tube. When this sample is allowed to stand in the vertical tube for 1 hour, the red blood cells will slowly fall to the bottom due to the influence of gravity. This will leave a clear, straw-colored fluid at the top of the tube. This clear fluid is plasma, the portion of blood that remains after the red blood cells and other cellular components have settled to the bottom of the tube.

The test result will depend on the amount of plasma at the top of the tube, which will be measured after 1 hour. The result will be reported in millimeters per hour .

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High Esr Value Above The Normal Range

A mild or moderate increase from the normal values of ESR can be considered as an indication of bodily inflammations and the presence of other conditions such as anemia, aging, pregnancy, diabetes, cardiac diseases and some types of infections.

A very high increase from the normal ESR values can be considered as an indication of severe inflammations, extreme infections, cancer that affects the cells of the immune system, multiple myeloma or bone marrow tumor, inflammatory complications of the muscles as well as inflammation of the temporal arteries which can include chewing difficulties, headaches and on certain occasions impaired vision.

An ESR test that shows steadily rising results can be considered as an indication of inflammation that is slowly increasing.

Using The Esr To Make A Diagnosis

What Happens if Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate or ESR is High?

The ESR remains an important diagnostic criterion for only two diseases: polymyalgia rheumatica and temporal arteritis911. Polymyalgia rheumatica is characterized by severe aching and stiffness in the neck, shoulder girdle or pelvic girdle areas.10 In some patients, systemic symptoms may predominate, with initial manifestations including anemia, fever of unknown origin or a nonspecific systemic illness accompanied by anorexia, malaise and weight loss.

The ESR is an inexpensive, simple test of chronic inflammatory activity.
Indications for the ESR have decreased as the sophistication of laboratory testing has increased.
The ESR rises with age, but this increase may simply reflect a higher disease prevalence in the elderly.
The use of the ESR as a screening test in asymptomatic persons is limited by its low sensitivity and specificity.
An elevated ESR is a key diagnostic criterion for polymyalgia rheumatica and temporal arteritis, but normal values do not preclude these conditions.
When there is a moderate suspicion of disease, the ESR may have some value as a sickness index.
An extremely elevated ESR will usually have an apparent causemost commonly infection, malignancy or temporal arteritis.
A mild to moderately elevated ESR without obvious etiology should prompt repeat testing after several months rather than an expensive search for occult disease.

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How It Is Tested

To complete an ESR blood test, the laboratory tech will collect a blood sample, which is placed in a closed recipient. Then the amount of time it takes for the red blood cells to separate from the plasma and accumulate at the bottom of the recipient is observed.

After about 1 or 2 hours, the amount of accumulated red blood cells is measured in millimeters, and reported in millimeters per hour . ESR tests do not require any extra preparation on fasting.

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