How Is Polycythemia Vera Diagnosed
The World Health Organization requires three separate criteria to diagnose polycythemia vera:
Criteria 1: Blood test showing high red blood cell count:
Red blood cells may be measured as:
Criteria 2: Bone marrow biopsy showing either:
- Excess of blood cells in the bone marrow, or
- Excess of mature megakaryocytes .
Criteria 3: The third criteria can be met by showing either:
- Molecular testing showing the presence of the JAK2 gene mutation, or
- Blood test showing very low levels of erythropoietin .
Blood Cancer Treatment And Therapy Options
Treatment for blood and bone marrow cancers depends on the type of cancer, your age, how fast the cancer is progressing, where the cancer has spread and other factors. Some common blood cancer treatments for leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma include:
Stem cell transplantation: A stem cell transplant infuses healthy blood-forming stem cells into the body. Stem cells may be collected from the bone marrow, circulating blood and umbilical cord blood.
Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses anticancer drugs to interfere with and stop the growth of cancer cells in the body. Chemotherapy for blood cancer sometimes involves giving several drugs together in a set regimen. This treatment may also be given before a stem cell transplant.
Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used to destroy cancer cells or to relieve pain or discomfort. It may also be given before a stem cell transplant.
How Is Blood Cancer Diagnosed
Determining a diagnosis often starts with a physical examination to check your general health. Your doctor will review your health history, examine your body and lymph nodes, and look for any signs of infection or bruising.
Different types of tests and procedures may be used to diagnose blood cancer. What you need will depend on the type of blood cancer suspected. Your care team may recommend testing and evaluate all the results along with you to make a diagnosis.
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Know The Risk Factors For Blood Clots
Type and stage of cancer
- Some cancers pose a greater risk for blood clots, including cancers involving the pancreas, stomach, brain, lungs, uterus, ovaries, and kidneys, as well as blood cancers, such as lymphoma and myeloma.
- The higher your cancer stage, the greater your risk for a blood clot.
Type of cancer treatment
- Treatments involving hospitalization, surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and catheters can increase your blood clot risk.
Other risk factors
- Family history of blood clots or inherited clotting disorder
- Hospitalization for illness or major surgery, particularly of the pelvis, abdomen, hip, or knee
- Broken bone or severe muscle injury
- Severe physical trauma, such as a motor vehicle accident
- Serious medical conditions, such as heart and lung diseases, or diabetes
- Sitting too long, such as traveling for more than 4 hours, especially with legs crossed
- Other causes of immobility, such as extended bedrest
- Overweight and obesity
What You Should Know
- Hematologists and oncologists are specialists who treat people who have PV or other types of blood cancer.
- PV is a chronic disease it is not curable, but it usually can be managed effectively for very long periods.
- Medical supervision of individuals with PV is important to prevent or treat complications.
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What Happens In Polycythaemia Vera
In polycythaemia vera, the stem cells make too many red blood cells. This makes the blood become thicker. Sometimes the extra cells collect in the spleen, which can make the spleen become enlarged.
For many people, treatment can control PV for many years. But for some people, PV can lead to other problems.
Some people develop scarring of their bone marrow over time. This is called myelofibrosis. And less commonly, people with PV can develop acute myeloid leukaemia .
Medicine To Prevent Blood Clots
If you have PV, daily low-dose aspirin tablets may be prescribed to help prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of serious complications.
You may also be offered treatment with low-dose aspirin if you have apparent or secondary polycythaemia and another health problem affecting your blood vessels, such as coronary heart disease or cerebrovascular disease.
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Can Pv Transform Into Other Blood Diseases
PV usually develops slowly. But as the symptoms get worse, they can take a toll on you and affect your daily life. In a very small number of people, PV leads to other blood diseases, such as myelofibrosis or leukemia.
Watch physician assistant and Medical Science Liaison at Incyte Amber Essenmacher explain the association between blood counts and the risk of complications for people living with PV.
When To See A Doctor
Since many early cancer symptoms are not very specific, it can be hard to know when you should feel worried. But early diagnosis can lead to earlier, more effective treatment, so don’t delay.
You should see your doctor if any blood cancer symptoms last more than a couple weeks without improving.
Some people worry about bothering” their doctor if they do have just a cold or flu. But your doctor would much rather see you promptly to make that diagnosis.
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History And Physical Exam
The first step to evaluate new polycythemia in any individual is to conduct a detailed history and physical exam. Patients should be asked about smoking history, altitude, medication use, personal bleeding and clotting history, symptoms of sleep apnea , and any family history of hematologic conditions or polycythemia. A thorough cardiopulmonary exam including auscultation of the heart and lungs can help evaluate for cardiac shunting or chronic pulmonary disease. An abdominal exam can assess for splenomegaly, which can be seen in polycythemia vera. Examination of digits for erythromelalgia, clubbing or cyanosis can help assess for chronic hypoxia.
Deficiencies In Proteins C And S And Antithrombin
The body produces natural anticoagulants, such as proteins C and S and antithrombin. Some people have low levels of these substances, leading to a higher risk of blood clots. This may result from an inherited health issue or develop over time.
The first sign of this issue is often a blood clot. The doctor may find this during a test. If a clot forms in a deep vein, the doctor may diagnose deep vein thrombosis . If a clot breaks off and travels to block a blood vessel that supplies blood to the lungs, this is called a pulmonary embolism , and it is life threatening.Protein C deficiency affects around
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When To See A Healthcare Provider
If your symptoms were initially those of a common cold and they last for 10 days or more, get better and then worsen, or you have other health conditions that worsen, contact a healthcare provider.
High fever, chills, malaise, chest tightness, productive cough, or trouble breathing are ominous signs that may indicate the presence of a serious problem that requires immediate medical attention.
What Is Polycythemia Vera And What Are The Symptoms
Polycythemia vera, or true polycythemia, is a rare disease of dogs and cats in which too many red blood cells are produced by the bone marrow. This is the opposite of anemia, in which there are too few red blood cells.
“Animals with thicker blood from polycythemia feel tired, sluggish, and weak and may even have seizures.”
Blood is composed of cells and fluid . Normally, the RBCs account for 35% to 55% of the blood volume and the white blood cells and plasma accounts for 45% to 65%. In these proportions, blood flows easily through arteries, veins, and capillaries to all parts of the body.
Dogs and cats with polycythemia vera may have a red blood cell population of 65% to 75% of the total blood volume. When this happens, blood becomes very thick and has difficulty moving through the small blood vessels in the body. Slower blood flow means fewer nutrients and less oxygen delivered to the tissues. The muscles and brain require the most nutrients and oxygen, so animals with thicker blood from polycythemia feel tired, sluggish, and weak and may even have seizures.
If left untreated, polycythemia vera can affect the heart. This disease can develop slowly over many months if it is a primary disease, so the symptoms appear gradually and may be easy to overlook in the early stages. Some cases of polycythemia are secondary, or related to another disease.
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Causes Of Thick Sticky Mucus
The body’s mucous membranes produce mucus. These membranes line your respiratory tract from your nose to your lungs. They also produce mucus in the digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems.
Mucus is important in ensuring your body tissues don’t dry out. It also filters out dust, allergens , and microbes.
While a small increase in mucus production is natural at times, the presence of foreign invaders like viruses or bacteria or allergens like pollen can cause the body to overreact and create thick sticky mucus that may clog your throat and nasal passages.
But a host of conditions can cause your body to produce thick, sticky mucus, including:
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : Progressive inflammatory disease of the lungs, includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema
- Bronchiectasis: Permanent widening of the airways, leading to problems clearing mucus
- Lung cancer: Cough and coughing up blood or rust-colored sputum
- Smoker’s cough: From chronic smoking, may cough up black or brown mucus
- Cystic fibrosis: An inherited condition that leads to thick mucus production in the lungs and other organs
- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : A progressive disease that attacks the nerve cells that control muscles
Causes Of Thick Blood: Causes And How To Overcome It
The cause of thick blood can be caused by various factors, one of which is certain medical conditions. Thick blood must be treated appropriately to prevent complications that can arise.
Basically, blood clotting is an important process that prevents excessive bleeding when a blood vessel is injured. It also aims to stop bleeding. When blood clots occur abnormally, this is known as hypercoagulability.
Hypercoagulability is a condition in which the blood is thicker and stickier than normal. Hypercoagulability can cause excessive blood clotting.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Polycythemia Vera In A Child
Some children do not have symptoms and polycythemia vera may be found when they’re having blood tests for other reasons. Symptoms occur more often in adults.
Symptoms can occur a bit differently in each child. They can include:
The symptoms of polycythemia can be like other health conditions. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
Key Points About Polycythemia Vera
- Polycythemia vera is a rare blood disorder in which there is an increase in all blood cells, particularly red blood cells.
- The increase in blood cells makes the blood thicker.
- Thick blood can lead to strokes or tissue and organ damage.
- Symptoms include lack of energy or weakness, headaches, dizziness, shortness of breath, visual disturbances, nose bleeds, bleeding gums, heavy menstrual periods, and bruising.
- Treatment may include medicines and phlebotomy, a procedure that removes extra blood from your body.
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Relation To Athletic Performance
Polycythemia is theorized to increased performance in endurance sports due to the blood being able to store more oxygen. This idea has led to the illegal use of blood doping and transfusions among professional athletes, as well as use of altitude training or elevation training masks to simulate a low-oxygen environment. However, the benefits of altitude training for athletes to improve sea-level performance are not universally accepted, with one reason being athletes at altitude might exert less power during training.
Use Of Filters On The Vena Cava
The vena cava is the main vein in the abdominal cavity whose job is to transport blood from the lower body back to the heart and lungs. DVT that occurs can sometimes travel to the lungs via the vena cava.
Applying a filter into the vena cava can prevent blood clots from passing through the vein.
That’s some information about the causes of thick blood and how to overcome it. To prevent thick blood, you should live a healthy lifestyle and fulfill the intake of fluids in the body, yes.
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How Is Polycythemia Vera Diagnosed In A Child
The healthcare provider will ask about your childs symptoms and health history. He or she will give your child a physical exam. Your child may also have tests, such as:
Hemoglobin and hematocrit. This test measures the amount of hemoglobin and red blood cells in the blood.
Complete blood count .A complete blood count checks the red blood cells, white blood cells, blood clotting cells , and sometimes, young red blood cells . It includes hemoglobin and hematocrit and more details about the red blood cells.
Peripheral smear.A small sample of blood is examined under a microscope. Blood cells are checked to see if they look normal or not.
Erythropoietin level. This test measures the amount of EPO in the blood. EPO is a hormone that helps make red blood cells.
Genetic tests. These tests look for gene mutations linked with polycythemia vera, such as JAK2, CALR and MPL, in addition to mutations in the EPO receptor.
What Is Thick Blood And What Are Symptoms
Blood is thicker than water but it can become thicker and cause serious health problems. Some uncommon disorders can thick your blood including conditions that cause blood clotting, hypercoagulation, etc.
These kinds of problems can cause life-threatening problems so it is important to detect and treat it early. One of my cousins have thicker blood, he buys eliquis generic 5 mg 60 tabs every month to prevent blood thickness.
In this article, I will share important things that you must know about thick blood disease.
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Blood Cancer Survival Rates
A blood cancer prognosis varies based on the type and other factors, including your overall health, age and response to treatment.
According to the National Cancer Institutes Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, the five-year relative survival rate is 65 percent for leukemiaa number that has improved dramatically in the past 50 years. Other rates include:
Signs And Symptoms Of Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia
Sometimes, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia isnt causing any symptoms when its first found. Instead, its found when the person has blood tests done for some other reason. WM found this way is sometimes called asymptomatic or smoldering WM.
When WM does cause symptoms, some of them can be like those seen with other types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma . For example, weight loss, fever, night sweats, and swollen lymph nodes can be seen in many types of NHL.
Other WM symptoms are caused by the large amounts of abnormal IgM antibody made by the cancer cells:
- In hyperviscosity syndrome, too much of the M protein in the blood can cause it to become too thick. When the blood gets too thick, it has trouble moving through blood vessels. This can cause problems such as poor circulation to the brain, which can lead to symptoms like those from a stroke.
- If the M protein only thickens the blood in cooler parts of the body , it is called a cryoglobulin. Cryoglobulins can cause pain or other problems in these areas if a person is exposed to cooler temperatures.
- A condition called amyloidosis can occur when a part of the IgM antibody builds up in organs like the heart and kidneys. This buildup can lead to heart and kidney problems.
Not all people with WM develop hyperviscosity, cryoglobulins, or amyloidosis.
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Polycythemia Vera Life Expectancy
Everyones situation with PV is different. But many people who stick to their treatment plan and see their hematologist regularly can expect to live a long life with limited complications.
Treatment is critical. People without any treatment can typically expect to survive less than 2 years, depending on age and overall health. But those who have treatment can live several more decades. The average length of survival after diagnosis is at least 20 years, and people can live for decades longer.
Blood Can Be Too Thin Or Too Thick
Blood that is too thick can lead to blood clots, and blood that is too thin can lead to easy bruising or bleeding. Problems with blood thickness can occur from birth, or develop later in life. Blood thickness may be affected by foods, drugs, and various medical conditions.
Thick blood may lead to blood clots in the legs, causing a painful, swollen condition called deep venous thrombosis. Sometimes a piece of clot breaks off to lung causing chest pain and shortness of breath- a life threatening condition called pulmonary embolism. Sometimes thick blood causes clots in arteries rather than veins. A blood clot forming in the neck arteries may travel to brain and cause a stroke. A blood clot forming in the arteries of the heart can result in a heart attack. Blood clots cause problems in the affected organ by cutting off oxygen flow.
Thick blood is caused by heavy proteins, or by too much blood in the circulation. Too many red cells, white cells, and platelets will result in blood thickening. Another cause is an imbalance in the blood clotting system. Specific diseases include lupus, inhibitors, deficiency in protein C or S or antithrombin, or mutations in Factor 5 or prothrombin. Cancer can also cause blood thickening.
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