Key Points About Metabolic Syndrome
- Metabolic syndrome is a condition that includes a cluster of risk factors specific for cardiovascular disease.
- The cluster of metabolic factors include abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, impaired fasting glucose, high triglyceride levels, and low HDL cholesterol levels.
- Metabolic syndrome greatly raises the risk of developing diabetes, heart disease, stroke, or all three.
- Management and prevention of metabolic syndrome include maintaining a healthy weight, eating a healthy diet, eliminating the use of cigarettes or other tobacco products, and being physical active.
The Relationship Between Glucose And Uric Acid Metabolism: Influence Of Short Term Allopurinol On Glucose Metabolism
Abstract Many investigators suggest that insulin resistance of the peripheral tissues is the primary defect that results in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus . It is also generally accepted that multifactorial controls, playing in concert for gene expression trigger this disease. Previous research reports indicated that uric acid metabolism plays a role in the pathogenesis of NIDDM. To investigate this hypothesis, we studied 53 NIDDM patients by using a double blind cross over control study, of allopurinol and placebo administration. We found a statistically significant elevation in the level of hemoglobin A1c after the allopurinol intervention period of 12 weeks compared with the placebo period of the same duration . The elevation was also found in a subgroup with Body Mass Index less than 25 kg/m2 and BMI more than or equal to 25 kg/m2 . No statistically significant differences between fasting plasma glucose, glucose tolerance test, serum insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatinine, prior to and after use of allopurinol were noted except for serum uric acid . No relationship between changes in HbA1c and changes in uric acid, analysed by linear regression analysis and correlation was demonstrated . We conclude that the changing of hemoglobin A1c may be a direct effect of allopurinol or support the role of uric acid in the pathogenesis of NIDDM.Continue reading > >
What Causes Metabolic Syndrome
Experts don’t fully understand what causes metabolic syndrome. Several factors are interconnected. Obesity plus a sedentary lifestyle contributes to risk factors for metabolic syndrome. These include high cholesterol, insulin resistance, and high blood pressure. These risk factors may lead to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.
Because metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance are closely tied, many healthcare providers believe that insulin resistance may be a cause of metabolic syndrome. But they have not found a direct link between the two conditions. Others believe that hormone changes caused by chronic stress lead to abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and higher blood lipids .
Other factors that may contribute to metabolic syndrome include genetic changes in a person’s ability to break down fats in the blood, older age, and problems in how body fat is distributed.
You May Like: Blood Pressure Medication And Alcohol
Lipid Changes Causing Type 2 Diabetes
In recent years it was recognized that lipid changes may not only be a consequence of impaired glucose metabolism but also cause them. Hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-C are important in that context. Elevated levels of triglycerides lead to elevated levels of free fatty acids which may induce insulin resistance and -cell dysfunction . Although the exact mechanisms are only partially understood it seems that elevated concentrations of free fatty acids disrupt or modulate the cascade linking insulin receptors with glucose transporters and impair the normal function of the -cell . Furthermore, free fatty acids are important modulators of inflammation. Therefore hypertriglyceridemia may induce subclinical inflammation which then leads to insulin resistance and -cell dysfunction. The fact that hypertriglyceridemia can worsen glucose metabolism is clinically important as it explains why it is more difficult to control hyperglycemia in patients with hypertriglyceridemia compared to those with normal triglyceride values. It also explains why patients usually require less intensive antidiabetic treatment once hypertriglyceridemia has resolved.
Animal studies indicate that knock-out and overexpression of apolipoprotein A1 affect many metabolic pathways related to diabetes development . Whether the results observed in rodents are also valid in humans is unknown. HDL, high density lipoprotein HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin.
Diabetes And Your Heart
You can lower your risk for heart disease with lifestyle changes.
Diabetes and heart disease often go hand in hand. Learn how to protect your heart with simple lifestyle changes that can also help you manage diabetes.
Heart disease is very common and serious. Its the leading cause of death for both men and women in the United States. If you have diabetes, youre twice as likely to have heart disease or a stroke than someone who doesnt have diabetesand at a younger age. The longer you have diabetes, the more likely you are to have heart disease.
But the good news is that you can lower your risk for heart disease and improve your heart health by changing certain lifestyle habits. Those changes will help you manage diabetes better too.
Also Check: Symptoms Of Low Blood Count
Baseline Characteristics Of Study Participants
The baseline characteristics of all participants according to quartiles of TyG index and the proportion of diabetes development were summarized in Tables 1, 2, respectively. The present study included 7,428 participants . The mean value TyG index was 8.56. Among quartiles of TyG index, we observed significant differences in all baseline covariates except for marriage status and education level . When compared with participants without diabetes during follow-up, subjects who developed diabetes were older in age, having lower education level, less likely to be married, having higher levels of SBP, DBP, BMI, WC, TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, FBG, Hemoglobin A1c, and TyG index, more likely to have hypertension and CVD, and more likely to use lipid-lowing drugs .
Table 1. Baseline characteristics of study participants according to quartiles of triglyceride glucose index.
Table 2. Comparison of baseline characteristics of study participants who developed diabetes or not.
Recommended Reading: Inulin And Diabetes Type 2
The First Sign: Insulin Resistance
Normally, your body makes insulin, which escorts glucose — the type of sugar in your blood –inside your cells. There, your body turns glucose into energy. Insulin also allows your body to use triglycerides for energy.
A common cause of high triglycerides is excess carbohydrates in your diet. High TGs signals insulin resistance thats when the cells that normally respond to insulin are resistant to it. This keeps the insulin from allowing the cells to absorb glucose uptake, requiring higher and higher levels of insulin. This results in higher than normal blood sugar levels.
If you have insulin resistance, youre one step closer to type 2 diabetes.
You can reverse your tracks by following the exercise and meal plan your doctor recommends to lower your triglycerides and by taking prescribed medicine.
You May Like: True Blood Where To Watch
Statins And New Onset Diabetes
It was first observed in the JUPITER trial that patients receiving high dose rosuvastatin have a higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes compared to those receiving placebo . This contrasted with earlier studies were no such effect or even a protective effect was observed . Following the WOSCOP study a number of smaller trials tried to clarify the effect of statins on insulin resistance and insulin secretion without giving clear results .
After the JUPITER trial many data sets were reanalyzed and it was shown that the risk for new onset diabetes is increased with statin therapy. The increased incidence was confirmed in the Womens Health Initiative and also in a Finish observational study evaluating almost 8,500 nondiabetic men as well as in a number of meta-analyses. One such meta-analysis evaluated whether reaching certain LDL-C levels is associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes. It was shown that the OR for developing diabetes is 1.33 in those reaching an LDL-C < 70 mg/dL , while the OR is 1.16 in those achieving an LDL-C between 70 and 100 mg/dL and not elevated in those with LDL-C above 100 mg/dL . Further analyses then indicated that the risk for new onset diabetes holds probably true for all statins and occurs in a dose dependent fashion .
Also Check: Blood Glucose To A1c Calculator
How Do High Glucose Levels Affect Cholesterol
Elevated glucose levels or impaired glucose metabolism does raise cholesterol levels.
One reason is that people with diabetes tend to have smaller and denser LDL particles than people without diabetes.
Smaller and denser LDL particles allow cholesterol to get into blood vessel walls more easily, plaquing arteries and leading to high cholesterol levels. It compounds the risk for heart disease and stroke because people with diabetes are already at elevated risk of developing these conditions.
Obesity is also tied to cholesterol.
Although type 2 diabetes is not always caused by or associated with obesity, research from 2016 shows that of people with type 2 diabetes have overweight or obesity. These weight levels raise the risk of developing higher cholesterol, and in turn, obesity does increase the likelihood of type 2 diabetes.
Also, the chance of higher cholesterol is higher for people who live with type 1 diabetes.
There are several ways to lower cholesterol and blood glucose levels.
You May Like: Smoothies For Diabetes And High Blood Pressure
A Diabetes Risk Factor
Research shows that lowering triglyceride levels may help stave off diabetes, a serious condition that occurs when the body can’t make the hormone insulin or use it well.
In a 10-year study of otherwise healthy men, researchers found that those with the lowest triglyceride levels were least likely to develop diabetes. In addition, men with high triglycerides who lowered them with healthy lifestyle changes had a diabetes risk that was similar to those who never had a triglyceride problem at all. The results were true even when controlling for diabetes risk factors such as blood pressure, physical activity, body mass index, family history, and more.
Experts don’t fully understand the relationship between triglycerides and diabetes. However, they believe excess triglycerides can increase insulin resistance in some people. This is the body’s inability to use glucose effectively.
Tips For Lowering Triglycerides Levels
Most Americans are familiar with cholesterol, but triglycerides often go unnoticed. Levels of triglycerides in the blood can be a strong predictor of heart disease, so itâs essential to know how to keep them under control. By making simple changes to your lifestyle, you can dramatically reduce your risk of developing long-term health complications. Luckily, there are several things you can do to lower your triglyceride levels.
Here are a few tips to help you begin lowering your triglyceride levels:
- Lose weight if youâre overweight or obese. Carrying too much extra weight contributes to high triglyceride levels. Metabolic health is vital to controlling triglyceride levels.
- Eat a healthy diet low in saturated and unhealthy fats and includes plenty of fruits and vegetables. Avoid dietary choices that are high in refined sugar and carbohydrates.
Causes Of High Triglycerides
There are many causes of high triglyceride levels. People with certain health conditions or risk factors are more likely to have higher triglyceride levels.
For example, elevated triglyceride levels are common in people with metabolic syndrome. This group of disorders increases your risk of heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. The syndrome can also cause high blood sugar, high blood pressure, low HDL , and extra belly fat.
People who have type 2 diabetes may have health concerns related to the condition that can affect their triglyceride levels.
Triglycerides And Blood Glucose
Did you know that high triglycerides and blood glucose levels are linked? Well, they are! Itâs essential to keep blood glucose and triglyceride levels within a healthy range to maintain good health. But to understand why that is, you first need to understand more about triglycerides.
Triglycerides are a type of fat found in the blood elevated levels can increase your risk of developing heart disease. Elevated blood glucose levels can also lead to health problems. Having high triglycerides and blood glucose levels at the same time increases your risk of heart disease and other serious health problems. But how are triglycerides and blood glucose related?
Recommended Reading: Ny Cancer And Blood Specialists Locations
Causes Of High Triglycerides In Diabetes
What Causes Elevated Levels?
It’s common to have high triglyceride levels if you have type 2 diabetes. When they are above the normal range, your provider might tell you that your triglyceride levels are elevated. Up to 70% of people with diabetes also have elevated triglyceride levels.
This article will go over how triglyceride levels are related to diabetes. You’ll also learn how to lower your triglyceride levels if they’re too high.
Changing Your Eating Habits
Several suggestions can help you lower cholesterol levels.
- Try avoiding foods with lots of saturated fats. These may include cheese, fatty meats, egg yolks, and full-fat dairy products. For example, try lowering the percentage of milk you drink. The American Heart Association recommends limiting your consumption of saturated fats to less than 5% or 6% of your daily calorie intake.
- Be sure to include lots of healthy fats into your meal planning, such as those found in nuts, fish, and extra virgin olive oil. Also include lots of fresh fruits, vegetables, legumes, and beans into your meal plans.
- Edamame is a popular soybean with vegetarians. The immature soybean contains isoflavones, which can lower cholesterol levels.
- Another cholesterol inhibiting nutrient is lycopene, found in tomatoes. Eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables will also make diabetes management much easier and will lower blood sugars.
Exercising and changing eating habits can lead to weight loss. Reducing or preventing obesity lessens your risk for prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and high cholesterol.
You May Like: High Blood Pressure And Heart Attack
Triglycerides And Diabetes Risk Connection
Triglycerides and diabetes are very intimately related. In fact, it is possible to say that one might not exist without the other in some cases. When we eat sugary foods, the body very quickly gobbles up the sugar to use for rapid energy. But, there is often extra leftover. Much of the time this gets stored in the form of fat. But, when storage capacity is as its limit, it is converted into triglycerides.
This is why one of the most important parts of a triglyceride lowering diet is the reduction of sugars. Specifically, the diet means reducing simple sugars, such as those found in candies, cakes and donuts. Additionally, high starchy foods like white rice and white flour should be avoided as part of triglyceride lowering diet. This is because of the way the body can convert these into the blood fats, which can lead to higher than normal triglycerides levels.
The relationship between triglycerides and diabetes is explained in a way that levels of the fats in the blood can be a sign that the bodys mechanism of converting food into energy is malfunctioning. Sometimes, the elevation of blood triglycerides can be a result of insulin resistance. Insulin is what the body uses in order to use triglycerides. A resistance to insulin can cause a situation in which both triglycerides and glucose build up in the blood stream. When insulin resistance is present, type 2 diabetes can often follow.
Also Check: Nursing Care Plan For Diabetes
Testing For Heart Disease
Your blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and weight will help your doctor understand your overall risk for heart disease. Your doctor may also recommend other tests to check your heart health, which could include:
- An electrocardiogram to measure your hearts electrical activity. Your heartbeat is the result of an electrical impulse traveling through your heart.
- An echocardiogram to examine how thick your heart muscle is and how well your heart pumps.
- An exercise stress test to see how well your heart functions when its working hard.
Also Check: Blood Type B Positive Diet Lose Weight
Information And Data Collection
All participants completed a questionnaire to collect basic information, including gender, age, menopausal status, medical history, smoking history, and alcohol consumption history. Systolic blood pressure , diastolic blood pressure were measured twice by professionals, and the average value was recorded. Body mass index was calculated twice by measuring height and weight, and the average values were calculated. All participants fasted overnight, and the blood was drawn in the next morning. All blood biomarkers were tested in the same laboratory. The study measured the levels of fasting blood glucose , glycosylated hemoglobin , 25-hydroxyvitamin D, albumin, total cholesterol , triglyceride , high-density lipoprotein cholesterol , low-density lipoprotein cholesterol , alanine aminotransferase , aspartate aminotransferase , urea nitrogen , creatinine and uric acid . 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 was measured by electrochemiluminescence method by laboratory physicians in the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hebei General Hospital. The TyG index was calculated using the formula ln .11
The Relationship Between Thyroid Hormones And Lipid Profile In Subclinical Hypothyroidism Female Patients
Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences
Background and objectives: Subclinical thyroid disorder is a most common subclinical disease among many medical conditions such as cardiovascular disease and subclinical Lyme disease. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between lipid profile results, lipid ratios, and anthropometric parameters and thyroid hormones. Methods: One hundred patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and 50 healthy subjects , who are age-matched with patients, were included in the current study. Thyroid function tests were determined by immunodiagnostic assay system for all participants. The serum glucose and lipid profile tests parameters were evaluated by Biolis 24i Premium chemistry analyser. In addition, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured for each individual in the study using mercury sphygmomanometer. Results: The levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were significantly lower …
Read Also: Panic Attack Blood Pressure 180