How Long Does It Take Magnesium To Affect Blood Pressure
According to the report, 300 mg/day magnesium was enough to raise blood magnesium levels and reduce blood pressure for just 1 month. It also claims that elevated magnesium levels in the blood were related to changes in blood circulation, which may help lower blood pressure.
The daily dose of magnesium supplements varied from 240 to 960 mg, 82% of which were equal to or higher than the United States, according to the meta-analysis. Adult Dietary Allowances310 to 320 mg/day for women and 400 to 420 mg/day for menshould be considered as a way to reduce blood pressure in high-risk individuals or hypertension patients, according to lead author Yiqing Song, MD, ScD, associate professor of the Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health at Indiana University. On the other hand, they point out that the higher quality studies with lower dropout rates resulted in the lowest blood pressure drops only in people with magnesium deficiency or insufficiency.
Could Magnesium Regulate Blood Pressure
Around one third of adults in the United States have high blood pressure, only half of whom have their high blood pressure under control. New research, published in the American Heart Associations journal Hypertension, identifies magnesium as a potential remedy.
70 million people in the U.S. and increasing the risk of two of the leading causes of death for Americans heart disease and stroke preventing or controlling blood pressure is an essential healthcare objective.
Labeled the silent killer, due to often having no warning signs or symptoms, high blood pressure is a common and often dangerous condition.
A meta-analysis, funded by the Indiana University School of Medicine Strategic Research Initiative, details positive results that show an association between a daily intake of magnesium and a reduction in blood pressure.
Magnesium is already recognized as essential for over 300 biochemical reactions in the body.
While there has been ongoing research into whether magnesium has a significant effect on high blood pressure, it has been widely documented to maintain normal nerve and muscle function, maintain a steady heartbeat, support a healthy immune system, and help bones to remain strong.
The new research includes data from 34 clinical trials, with a total of 2,028 participants.
Song and colleagues also observed that patients who had an intake of 300 mg of magnesium per day had elevated blood magnesium levels and reduced blood pressure within a month.
Clinical Signs Of Magnesium Deficiency
magnesium is essential for the normal metabolism of potassium and of calciumthe occurrence in clinical situations of otherwise unexplained hypokalemia and hypocalcemia should suggest the possibility of significant magnesium depletion.
Among the most common laboratory signs of magnesium deficiency are low potassium and calcium levels, as well as low urine and/or faecal magnesium. The most common neurological side effect with magnesium depletion is the Trousseau sign that is, To elicit the sign, a blood pressure cuff is placed around the arm and inflated to a pressure greater than the systolic blood pressure and held in place for 3min. This will occlude the brachial artery. In the absence of blood flow, the patients hypocalcemia and subsequent neuromuscular irritability will induce spasm of the muscles of the hand and forearm. The wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints flex, the DIP and PIP joints extend, and the fingers adduct. Other signs of magnesium deficiency included tremor, fasciculations , spontaneous carpopedal spasm and generalised spasticity. Other clinical features of magnesium deficiency include mental disturbances such as depression, confusion, agitation, hallucinations, weakness, neuromuscular irritability , athetoid movements and convulsive seizures.
A full list of potential clinical and lab signs of magnesium deficiency are summarised in and .
ST segment depression .
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Magnesium And Blood Pressure: A Physiology
Hypertension is an important public health challenge because of its high prevalence and strong association with cardiovascular disease and premature death. Hypertension is a major cause of CKD, is present in more than 80% of CKD patients, and contributes to CKD progression. Risk factors for hypertension include, but are not limited to, age, race, family history, obesity, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and inadequate intake of minerals such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium. Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation in the human body and plays an important role in insulin and adenosine triphosphate metabolism. Low dietary magnesium intake has been associated with an increased risk of developing hypertension in prospective cohort studies. Moreover, clinical trials suggest that magnesium supplementation has blood pressurelowering effects. In addition, emerging data reveal potential mechanisms by which magnesium may influence blood pressure. Here, we will review these mechanisms, using a physiology-based approach, focusing on the effects of magnesium on total peripheral resistance and cardiac output.
Causes Of Low Magnesium
Low magnesium is typically due to decreased absorption of magnesium in the gut or increased excretion of magnesium in the urine. Low magnesium levels in otherwise healthy people are uncommon. This is because magnesium levels are largely controlled by the kidneys. The kidneys increase or decrease excretion of magnesium based on what the body needs.
Continually low dietary intake of magnesium, excessive loss of magnesium, or the presence of other chronic conditions can lead to hypomagnesemia.
Hypomagnesemia is also more common in people who are hospitalized. This may be due to their illness, having certain surgeries, or taking certain types of medication. Very low magnesium levels have been linked to poorer outcomes for severely ill, hospitalized patients.
Conditions that increase the risk of magnesium deficiency include gastrointestinal diseases, advanced age, type 2 diabetes, use of loop diuretics , treatment with certain chemotherapies, and alcohol dependence.
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Does Magnesium Raise Or Lower Blood Pressure
Magnesium intake from 500 mg/d to 1000 mg/d may cause blood pressure to be reduced by as much as 5.6/2.8 mm Hg. However, clinical trials show a variety of BP reductions, with some showing no change in BP.
The combination of increased magnesium and potassium intake along with reduced sodium intake is more effective in lowering BP than single mineral intake, and its often as safe as one antihypertensive drug in treating hypertension. While raising intracellular magnesium and potassium raises BP response, lowering intracellular sodium and calcium improves BP responses. Magnesium also improves the efficiency of all antihypertensive drug classes. It has yet to be established that magnesium intake can prevent or treat cardiovascular disease such as coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and cardiac arrhythmias. According to preliminary results, insulin sensitivity, hyperglycemia, diabetes mellitus, left ventricular hypertrophy, and dyslipidemia may be enhanced with increased magnesium intake. Several genetic abnormalities in magnesium transport have been attributed to hypertension and possibly cardiovascular disease.
Are Magnesium Supplements Right For Me
If youre already consuming 5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily, there is a likelihood that taking a supplement wont have the same effect.
Most studies showing beneficial effects enroll people who report lower intakes of magnesium-rich foods.
Nutrition scientists also recommend a food-first approach since foods contain many other nutrients that act together to promote health.
There is evidence that magnesium supplements work to lower blood pressure. People in clinical studies that were administered 300-500 mg of supplemental magnesium for 2-3 months have consistently shown improvements in blood pressure as compared with those on the placebo.
This is not surprising given that people who consume high amounts of plant foods containing magnesium also show a decreased risk of low-grade chronic inflammation, hypertension, and heart disease.
Magnesium supplements may have benefitsbeyond heart health. Several studies suggest that getting enough magnesium can help prevent the onset of osteoporosis, a disease that affects more than 50% of adults over 50 years old.
50-60% of thebodys magnesium has actually stored in the bones. Magnesium helps to regulate your blood vitamin D levels.
Its involved in over 600 enzymatic reactions in the body, including those involved in both immune and inflammatory responses.
Lower intakes have also been linked to an increased risk for type-2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and migraine.
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Magnesium May Modestly Lower Blood Pressure
By Kathryn Doyle, Reuters Health
4 Min Read
– Magnesium supplements taken daily for three months may result in slightly lower blood pressure, according to an analysis of more than 30 existing studies.
Previous evidence has suggested that magnesium deficiency may be related to cardiometabolic disorders, including high blood pressure, said lead author Yiqing Song.
Taking oral magnesium supplements regularly can help lower blood pressure and can be considered as an inexpensive, safe, and adjuvant antihypertensive therapy, said Song, of the Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health at Indiana University in Indianapolis.
But magnesium supplements can cause gastrointestinal symptoms, and may interfere with medications, he told Reuters Health by email.
Patients with heart disease, kidney disease, liver disease or other critically ill conditions should not take magnesium supplements without their doctors consent and supervision, Song added.
The researchers combined data from 34 clinical trials that included a total of more than 2,000 people. Based on those results, they found that taking daily supplements of about 368 milligrams of magnesium for about three months seemed to reduce blood pressure measurements by between one and two millimeters of mercury .
Normal blood pressure readings are 120 mm Hg systolic or less, and 80 mm Hg diastolic or less. Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is usually defined as a systolic reading of 140/90 mm Hg or higher.
Effect Of Magnesium On Bp
Epidemiologic, observational, and clinical trial data show that a diet high in magnesium lowers BP, but the results are inconsistent.- These varied results may relate to the population studied, duration of the trial, use of concomitant drugs, other nutrients and minerals, type and dose of magnesium administered, pretreatment magnesium level, pretreatment BP level, inadequate monitoring for adherence, use of varied measures of serum magnesium, intracellular magnesium, or 24-hour urinary magnesium excretion, as well as lack of evaluation of baseline plasma renin activity, essential fatty acid status, and genetic magnesium transporter status. In most epidemiologic studies, an inverse relationship has been shown between dietary magnesium intake and BP.-
In a study of 60 patients with hypertension given magnesium oxide at 20mmol/d during 8weeks, significant reductions in ambulatory, home, and office BP were observed. The office BP fell by 3.7/1.7mmHg, 24-hour ambulatory BP was reduced by 2.5/1.4 mmHg, and home BP decreased by 2.0/1.4mmHg. The levels of serum and urinary magnesium correlated with the BP reduction. Patients with the highest BP levels at entry had the largest reduction in BP.
|No change with magnesium but reduction with potassium
- Abbreviations: ABPM, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring BP, blood pressure MAP, mean arterial pressure mg, magnesium.
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How Quickly Does Magnesium Lower Blood Pressure
The study on magnesium, a key component of the human body, was published in the American Heart Associations journal Hypertension recently. A meta-analysis of 34 clinical trials involving 2,028 participants was conducted by the researchers. Trial participants who were given a median of 368 mg of magnesium a day for an average of three months had overall decreases in systolic blood pressure of 2.00 mmHg. Adults receive 310 to 320 mg/day, while men receive 400 to 420 mg/day. Adults in the United States are recommended Dietary Allowance 310 to 320 mg/day.
Adequate Magnesium Intake Can Be Achieved Through A Healthy Diet
Although 82 percent of the magnesium supplement dosages in the study were equal to or greater than the U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowance for adults, the American Heart Association say that magnesium, as a supplement, may not be necessary for the desired effect of maintaining blood pressure.
AHA spokesperson Penny Kris-Etherton, Ph.D., Prof. of Nutrition at the University of Pennsylvania, says, This study underscores the importance of consuming a healthy diet that provides the recommended amount of magnesium as a strategy for helping to control blood pressure.
She adds, Importantly, this amount of magnesium can be obtained from a healthy diet that is consistent with AHA dietary recommendations.
Yiqing Song notes, Consistent with previous studies, our evidence suggests that the anti-hypertensive effect of magnesium might be only effective among people with magnesium deficiency or insufficiency.
Such suggestive evidence indicates that maintenance of optimal magnesium status in the human body may help prevent or treat hypertension, he concludes.
The researchers additionally discovered that magnesium supplementation might only decrease blood pressure in people who have a deficiency in magnesium.
Limitations of the meta-analysis include the small number of participants in each study and significant dropout rates. However, the studies with lower dropout rates expressed a higher reduction in blood pressure.
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Magnesium And Vascular Changes In Hypertension
Ana Rosa Cunha
Many factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, including changes in intracellular concentrations of calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. There is a significant inverse correlation between serum magnesium and incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Magnesium is a mineral with important functions in the body such as antiarrhythmic effect, actions in vascular tone, contractility, glucose metabolism, and insulin homeostasis. In addition, lower concentrations of magnesium are associated with oxidative stress, proinflammatory state, endothelial dysfunction, platelet aggregation, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia. The conflicting results of studies evaluating the effects of magnesium supplements on blood pressure and other cardiovascular outcomes indicate that the action of magnesium in the vascular system is present but not yet established. Therefore, this mineral supplementation is not indicated as part of antihypertensive treatment, and further studies are needed to better clarify the role of magnesium in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
2. Physiological Functions and Pathophysiological Actions of Magnesium
|Role of magnesium and calcium in the pathophysiology of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis.
3. Magnesium and Blood Pressure
4. Magnesium and Vascular Structure
5. Magnesium and Vascular Function
6. Magnesium Supplementation
Are Magnesium Supplements Safe To Regulate Your Blood Pressure
Magnesium supplements are safe and relatively low-cost. Just remember more is not always better. The most common adverse effect reported from taking supplemental magnesium is laxation at levels above 350 mg .
People who take too much magnesium from supplements can experience nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal cramping.
If youre curious about what type of magnesium is best for high blood pressure, meta-analyses have reported benefits from a wide range of organic and inorganic formulations such as magnesium lactate and magnesium citrate.
Some professionals suggest magnesium taurate for lowering blood pressure because it contains the amino acid taurine, which can also reduce hypertension.
However, Im not aware of any human studies examining magnesium taurate on blood pressure.
How about chelated vs. non-chelated magnesium? I say po-tay-to vs. po-tah-to. Any formulation or dietary pattern that provides adequate magnesium levels will be helpful.
A good supplement option is a pico-iconic formulation because its microscopic size absorbs easily without flooding your digestive tract.
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Could Adding Minerals To Drinking Water Fight High Blood Pressure
Please note: This article was published more than two years ago, so some information may be outdated. If you have questions about your health, always contact a health care professional.
If you have high blood pressure, chances are you’ve been told to cut back on salt. You might even be taking medication. These are good strategies, as nearly half of all adults in the United States work to keep hypertension at bay.
What if there were an easier way to make sure nearly everyone took at least one small step toward reducing their blood pressure every time they drank a glass of water?
A new study, published Tuesday in the Journal of the American Heart Association, suggests adding calcium and magnesium to drinking water potentially could help lower blood pressure levels across the population. The strategy stems from research that looked at the impact of drinking water sources on the health of people in an area of coastal Bangladesh affected by seawater intrusion. The residents relied upon pond water or groundwater as their main water source.
The study compared blood pressure levels among people who drank salinated water with those who drank freshwater. Even though sodium is known to increase blood pressure levels, study participants who drank the salinated water had lower blood pressure. That wasn’t because of the sodium, the researchers believe, but rather because of two other minerals in the water calcium and magnesium.
Which Is Better Magnesium Citrate Or Chelated Magnesium
Magne citrate absorption was found to be more effective than magnesium oxide and magnesium chelate in an older 2003 study. However, doctors can also use it to treat constipation. For some people, this could lead to unwanted digestive side effects, such as diarrhea. Some people use it on the skin, but it can also cause unwanted side effects such as diarrhea or constipation, which may be caused by the use of a topical form of formaldehyde, or magnesium oxide, in the body and to treat constitis constrication or diarrhea.
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It’s Usually Best To Get Calcium Magnesium And Potassium From Food Are You Getting Enough
A healthy, balanced diet plays a major role in blood pressure control. And you should consume some specific minerals on a regular basis for good blood pressure management: calcium, magnesium, and potassium. But do most of us get enough of these? “If you’re eating a healthy diet, you probably have nothing to worry about. But people eating a diet of processed and canned foods or taking certain medications might not be getting enough of these micronutrients,” says Dr. Randall Zusman, director of the Division of Hypertension at the Massachusetts General Hospital Heart Center.
of potassium, 67 mg of magnesium,and 96 mg calcium.
potassium, and 91 mg ofmagnesium.
|78 mg of magnesium, and146 mg of calcium.
Normal body levels of potassium are important for muscle function, including relaxing the walls of the blood vessels. This lowers blood pressure and protects against muscle cramping. Normal potassium levels also are important for the conduction of electrical signals in the nervous system and in the heart. This protects against an irregular heartbeat.
The Recommended Dietary Allowance of potassium is 4.7 grams per day for both men and women ages 51 and older.