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Hgb Blood Test Normal Range

Why Do I Need This Test

Hemoglobin Test in Laboratory | Hemoglobin Test Normal Range | Hemoglobin Structure

You may need this test if it is part of routine blood testing. You may also need to have your hemoglobin checked if you have anemia or symptoms of anemia. Anemia can be caused by blood loss, decreased production of red blood cells, or increased destruction of red blood cells. Your healthcare provider can use your hemoglobin test to help find the cause of your anemia. These are other reasons you may need this test:

  • To diagnose a disease that causes anemia

  • To see how severe your anemia is

  • To see whether your anemia is responding to treatment

  • To evaluate a disease called polycythemia

Symptoms of anemia may include:

  • Shortness of breath

Hemocue Blood Haemoglobin System

HemoCue Blood Haemoglobin System is a battery- or mains-operated portable, direct read-out machine that uses disposable dry chemistry cuvettes. Measurements are precise and accurate but only if specified cuvettes are used, the reading surfaces are kept clean and the cuvettes are properly filled with blood. Unlike most other systems, measurement does not require predilution of the sample. Although the use of unique disposable cuvettes makes this method relatively expensive, the cuvettes for the new Hb 301 version are generally cheaper than those for the Hb 201 and are designed for adverse climatic conditions. HemoCue is fast and simple to use so some costs may be offset by savings on training and supervision time. Disadvantages also include need for an effective supply chain to ensure availability of cuvettes and waste management of used cuvettes. In addition, Hb 310 is not suitable for EQA using haemoglobin lysate.

Robert D. Baker, Susan S. Baker, in, 2011

Low Hemoglobin In Infants

Newborns can have temporary anemia when they are 68 weeks old. This occurs when they run out of the red blood cells they are born with, but their bodies have not made new red blood cells. This condition will not affect the baby adversely unless they are ill for some other reason.

Babies can also have anemia from breaking down cells too quickly, which results in yellowing skin, a condition known as jaundice. This often occurs if the mother and baby have incompatible blood types.

can be at risk of developing anemia.

People who perform vigorous exercise are also at greater risk, as exertion can lead to a breakdown of red blood cells in the bloodstream. Someone who is menstruating or pregnant may also be at increased risk of developing anemia.

People who have chronic health conditions, including autoimmune conditions, liver disease, thyroid disease, and inflammatory bowel disease, may have lower hemoglobin levels, which increases the chances of developing anemia.

Hemoglobin levels increase when a person needs more oxygen in their body. Consequently, someone who has lung or kidney disease, smokes, or is dehydrated, may be at risk of increased hemoglobin levels.

While many types of anemia are not preventable, eating iron-rich foods, such as beef, dark green leafy vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts can prevent anemias caused by iron or vitamin deficiencies.

Meat and dairy are good sources of vitamin B12. Citrus juices, legumes, and fortified cereals contain folic acid.

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What Other Tests Might I Have Along With This Test

Hemoglobin is usually tested as part of a complete blood count, or CBC. A CBC is a blood test that counts all the different cells in your blood. A hemoglobin test may also be paired with a hematocrit test. When the two are tested together it is often called an H and H. The hematocrit blood test tells what percent of your blood is made up by red blood cells.

A Healthcare Provider May Suggest A Target Of A1c Levels Of 7085% If A Person:

Hba1c Normal Values For Diabetes
  • Is older and has a shorter life expectancy
  • Has a history of diabetes over a longer period
  • Has other chronic medical problems
  • Suffering from diabetes which is difficult to manage, even with multiple drugs
  • Has experienced diabetic complications
  • Has a history of serious hypoglycemia

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What Are Normal Hemoglobin Levels

The hemoglobin level is expressed as the amount of hemoglobin in grams per deciliter of whole blood, a deciliter being 100 milliliters.

The normal ranges for hemoglobin depend on the age and, beginning in adolescence, the gender of the person. The normal ranges are:

  • Newborns: 17 to 22 gm/dL
  • One week of age: 15 to 20 gm/dL
  • One month of age: 11 to 15 gm/dL
  • Children: 11 to 13 gm/dL
  • Adult males: 14 to 18 gm/dL
  • Adult women: 12 to 16 gm/dL
  • Men after middle age: 12.4 to 14.9 gm/dL
  • Women after middle age: 11.7 to 13.8 gm/dL
Normal Hemoglobin Levels by Age and Gender Chart

Ages and Genders
Women After Middle Age 11 – 13.8

All of these values may vary slightly between laboratories. Some laboratories do not differentiate between adult and “after middle age” hemoglobin values. Pregnant females are advised to avoid both high and low hemoglobin levels to avoid increased risks of stillbirths and premature birth or low-birth-weight baby .

Important For Cognitive Function

Several studies have shown that low hemoglobin and anemia may be able to help predict dementia or cognitive decline. This is likely because of the chronic lower oxygen supply to the brain .

A study in 1435 elderly showed that those with low hemoglobin levels , had a higher risk of developing dementia over the next three years .

Similarly, in another study of 881 older people, those who had anemia had a 60% increased risk of developing Alzheimers over the following 3 years .

Furthermore, in another study with 558 older women, lower hemoglobin was associated with both cognitive and physical decline in yearly follow-up visits .

However, the effects of low hemoglobin on cognitive function are not restricted to the elderly.

In a study of 322 children, those with anemia performed worse on two tests of cognitive function .

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What Is Hemoglobin A1c

Dr. Gary L. Horowitz from Harvard Medical School says that hemoglobin A1c is the average blood glucose concentration in red blood cells. Testing levels of hemoglobin A1c can help diabetics manage their symptoms better and can help to monitor fasting glucose values.40

This ideal reference range of hemoglobin A1c is between 4.8% and 5.9%. However, anything less than 7.0% should be acceptable for people with diabetes.

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Expert Review And References

Hemoglobin Low and High Levels, Normal Range
  • Understanding chemotherapy: a guide for patients and families. American Cancer Society. American Cancer Society. American Cancer Society 2013.
  • Anemia. American Society of Clinical Oncology . Cancer.Net. Alexandria, VA.: American Society of Clinical Oncology 2009.
  • Camp-Sorrell, D. Chemotherapy toxicities and management. Yarbro, CH, Wujcki D, & Holmes Gobel B. . Cancer Nursing: Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett 2011: 17: pp. 458-503.
  • Haas ML. Radiation therapy: toxicities and management. Yarbro, CH, Wujcki D, & Holmes Gobel B. . Cancer Nursing: Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett 2011: 14: 312-351.
  • Hockenberry MJ, Kline NE. Nursing support of the child with cancer. Pizzo, P. A. & Poplack, D. G. . Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2011: 43:1288-1304.
  • Hospital for Sick Children. AboutKidsHealth: Side Effects of Chemotherapy. Toronto, ON: Hospital for Sick Children 2009.
  • Panzarella C, Rasco-Baggott C, Comeau, M., et al. Management of disease and treatment-related complications. Baggott, C. R., Kelly, K. P., Fochtman, D. et al. Nursing Care of Children and Adolescents with Cancer. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders Company 2002: 11:279-319.

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Vitamin Or Mineral Deficiency

Anemia can occur if you have vitamin deficiencies, not just vitamin B group deficiencies. Some of the vitamin and mineral deficiencies that can lead to low hemoglobin levels can include any of the following:

Vitamin A. Vitamin A is essential to help store iron in the body. The journal BMC Pediatrics reported that a high vitamin A dose can help raise hemoglobin levels in children and treat some forms of anemia.13

Vitamin D. According to scientific research published in the journal Renal Failure, a lack of vitamin D can lead to anemia and a low hemoglobin count. Vitamin D deficiencies can also cause headaches, tiredness, and back pain.

Zinc. Iron-deficiency anemia can also be linked to a lack of zinc. The journal Annals of Hematology reported that zinc is an important mineral to keep the immune system healthy and keep cells functioning properly. People with low levels of zinc often have below normal levels of hemoglobin.14

Copper. A report published in the International Journal of Surgery Case Reports found that copper is linked to anemia and a low white blood cell count. Doctors say that anemia from a copper deficiency can be hard to detect.15

How Is Hemoglobin Measured

Hemoglobin is usually measured as a part of the routine complete blood count test from a blood sample.

Several methods exist for measuring hemoglobin, most of which are done currently by automated machines designed to perform different tests on blood. Within the machine, the red blood cells are broken down to get the hemoglobin into a solution. The free hemoglobin is exposed to a chemical containing cyanide that binds tightly with the hemoglobin molecule to form cyanomethemoglobin. By shining a light through the solution and measuring how much light is absorbed , the amount of hemoglobin can be determined.

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What Hemoglobin Level Is Normal

Hemoglobin Level is the measurement of the amount of hemoglobin molecule within a specified volume of blood in the human body. The level of hemoglobin, thus, is measured in terms of grams of hemoglobin per deciliter of blood.

The normal range and level of hemoglobin varies according to age and gender of human beings. While the normal range of hemoglobin for men ranges between 13.8 to 17.2 grams per deciliter , it ranges around 12.1 to 15.1 g/dL for women.

How Does A1c Work


A1c testing depends upon haemoglobin. haemoglobin is present in the persons RBC and transfers oxygen all through the body. When glucose is present in the blood, it sticks to the haemoglobin. Higher amount of glucose in the blood results in more sticking to the haemoglobin. The A1c test assesses the average sugar sticking to haemoglobin over time.

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Increases The Risk Of Blood Clots

Once hemoglobin concentration reaches 18 g/dL, the blood thickness reaches a level that impairs microcirculation. Microcirculation is the circulation of the blood in the smallest of the blood vessels .

As a result, less oxygen reaches the tissues. The effects are similar to the situation found in severe anemia . It often manifested as cyanosis and impaired mental function resulting from compromised brain circulation .

Additionally, because of the poor blood flow, the risk of having blood vessels obstructed by blood clots increases substantially .

On the other hand, in conditions with increased red blood cell destruction, cell-free hemoglobin binds nitric oxide, which normally plays an important beneficial role by expanding blood vessels. Without nitric oxide, involuntary muscle contractions , blood clots , and blood vessel dysfunction may ensue .

What Does A High Hemoglobin Level Mean

Higher than normal hemoglobin levels can be seen in people living at high altitudes and in people who smoke. Dehydration produces a falsely high hemoglobin measurement that disappears when the proper fluid balance is restored.

Some other infrequent causes are high hemoglobin levels are:

  • advanced lung disease
  • certain tumors
  • a disorder of the bone marrow known as polycythemia rubra vera, and
  • abuse of the drug erythropoietin by athletes for blood doping purposes .

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What Do The Results Mean

There are many reasons your hemoglobin levels may not be in the normal range.

Low hemoglobin levels may be a sign of:

  • Different types of anemia
  • Polycythemia vera, a disorder in which your body makes too many red blood cells. It can cause headaches, fatigue, and shortness of breath.

If any of your levels are abnormal, it doesn’t always mean you have a medical condition that needs treatment. Diet, activity level, medicines, a menstrual period, and other factors can affect the results. You may also have higher than normal hemoglobin levels if you live in a high altitude area. Talk with your provider to learn what your results mean.

Learn more about laboratory tests, reference ranges, and understanding results.

What Does It Mean If Your Mpv Blood Test Results Are High

HbA1c Test and What HbA1c Normal Range Means

A high test result means that your platelets are larger than whats considered normal. Newly made platelets are larger than older platelets, so a high number may signal that your bone marrows making a lot of new platelets. Platelet production may increase if your older platelets are being destroyed at an increased rate.

Conditions associated with high MPV results include:

  • Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.
  • Primary or secondary thrombocytosis.

Low results may indicate that drugs are limiting your bone marrows ability to make new platelets. For example, some chemotherapy drugs may have this effect.

Still, a low or high result doesnt mean you have a disease or disorder. The results provide information that your provider can consider when deciding the next steps for arriving at a diagnosis.

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Reasons For Fluctuations In Hba1c Normal Range

Use of Insulin, fasting, oral intake of glucose, or frequent fluctuations in your blood sugar levels are the most common reasons for the alteration in glycosylated hemoglobin levels. If people with diabetes notice the fluctuations in their glycosylated Hb level, they should consult doctors to maintain their HbA1c levels at the normal range. This helps in reducing risks and avoiding complications due to diabetes.

Getting rid of Insulin and other medications by proper sleeping, eating, and workout habits sounds impossible. But I have come across many people who have been able to regularise their Glycosylated Haemoglobin Levels and live a healthy life after successful Diabetes Reversal.

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Setting Goals For A1c Levels

The target A1c level for people with diabetes is usually less than 7%. The higher the hemoglobin A1c, the higher your risk of having complications related to diabetes. Someone who has had untreated diabetes for a long time might have a level above 8%.

If you have diabetes and your level is above your target, your doctor may change your treatment plan to get your level down.

A combination of diet, exercise, and medication can bring your levels down.

People with diabetes should have an A1c test every 3 months to make sure their blood sugar is in their target range. If your diabetes is under good control, you may be able to wait longer between the blood tests. But experts recommend checking at least two times a year.

People with diseases affecting hemoglobin, such as anemia, may get misleading results with this test. Other things that can affect the results of the hemoglobin A1c include supplements such as vitamins C and E and high cholesterol levels. Kidney disease and liver disease may also affect the test.

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Hba1c Targets In Pregnancy

  • HbA1c is physiologically lowered by 0.5% due to expansion of red blood cell mass and recruitment of new immature RBCs.
  • Diffusion of glucose through the RBC membrane increases with age, so the build-up of newer RBCs lowers HbA1c values in pregnancy.
  • A target of < 6% is optimal, and < 6.5% is acceptable in most pregnant females the rationale is that the incidence of congenital fetal anomalies is similar to non-diabetic females at these levels.
  • Poorly controlled patients are prone for fetal cardiac,central nervous system and gut anomalies.
  • Inspite of its shortcomings, HbA1c is recommended every 2-3 months in pregnant females for monitoring.

Medical Council Of Canada

Target Ranges

This table lists reference values for the interpretation of laboratory results provided in the Medical Council of Canada exams.All values apply to adults.

Normal values were obtained primarily from the University of Ottawas laboratory , the AMA Manual of Style, and Ottawa Hospital Laboratory Services.

Arterial blood gasesa

Base excess, arterial blood 2.5 to 2.5 mmol/L

aEastern Ontario Regional Laboratory Association. EORLA regional biochemistry recommended reference intervals by instrumentation/analyzer: Blood Gas & Oximetry. Last updated June 28, 2019.

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate , blooda
Mean corpuscular volume , blooda 80100 fL
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin , blooda
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration , blooda 315355 g/L
Mean platelet volume , blooda 9.014.0 fL
Red blood cell count, blooda
Red cell distribution width , blooda 11.5%15.5%
Reticulocyte percentage, bloodc 0.5%1.5%

aEastern Ontario Regional Laboratory Association. Hematology reference ranges. Glengarry Memorial Hospital. Effective date June 25, 2019.bFrom The Ottawa Hospital laboratory .cSzigeti, R. G. . Reticulocyte count and reticulocyte hemoglobin content. Retrieved April 27, 2020, from

Bleeding time , bloodd 19 min
International normalized ratio , nonanticoagulated, blooda 0.91.2
Activated partial thromboplastin time , nonanticoagulated, blooda 2230 s
Prothrombin time , bloode 1014 s
White blood cells and Differential

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Hemoglobin Level In Male

Just like in females, the normal levels of hemoglobin in males also vary according to age such as

  • Males between the age group of 12 to 18 years should have hemoglobin level between 13.0 to 16.0 grams per deciliter of blood. While this is the normal range, the mean of 14.5 grams of hemoglobin per deciliter of blood is the acceptable normal. Any count of hemoglobin below 13.0 g/dL is considered to be low hemoglobin and hemoglobin levels above 16.0 g/dL are considered high hemoglobin levels.
  • Males of age above 18 years should have hemoglobin level between 13.6 to 17.7 grams per deciliter of blood. While this is the normal range, the mean of 15.5 grams of hemoglobin per deciliter of blood is the acceptable normal hemoglobin. Any count of hemoglobin below 13.6 g/dL is considered to be low hemoglobin and hemoglobin levels above 17.7 g/dL are considered high hemoglobin levels.

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