What Are The Different Types Of Breast Cancer And Its Different Stages
In breast cancer, knowing where the tumor is located, its size, type and stage, are extremely important in understanding treatment and outcome. Types of breast cancer are categorized depending upon how they look under the microscope. Some may also be combinations of different types. For details visit the National Cancer Institute or the American Cancer Society.
As a general guideline, breast cancer is categorized as:
- Ductal carcinoma in situ refers to abnormal cells found that havent invaded surrounding tissue.
- Lobular carcinoma in situ abnormal cells contained within a lobule of the breast but havent invaded surrounding tissue.
- Invasive ductal carcinoma also known as infiltrating and capable of traveling to other parts of the body. About 70 percent of invasive breast cancers are this type.
- Invasive lobular carcinoma less common than IDC starts in milk-producing lobule and invades surrounding tissue.
Like many cancers, breast cancer is divided into stages:
- Stage O localized hasnt yet spread.
- Stage I an early stage of invasive breast cancer has not spread beyond the breast.
- Stage II tumor can vary in size and has spread to the lymph nodes but is still contained within a certain region.
- Stage III a locally advanced cancer tumor may be large.
- Stage IV metastatic cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
What Is The Outlook For Pancreatic Cancer
Because pancreatic cancer is typically only diagnosed once its reached a more advanced stage, its outlook is often quite poor. This underlines the importance of early testing and the need for improved screening tools.
Cancer outlook is often given as a 5-year survival rate. This is the percentage of people diagnosed with a certain type and stage of cancer that are still living 5 years after their diagnosis.
The estimates 5-year survival based on how far the cancer has spread:
- Localized: When pancreatic cancer remains localized to the pancreas, the 5-year survival is 43.9%.
- Regional: If pancreatic cancer has spread into nearby tissues or lymph nodes, the 5-year survival is 14.7%.
- Distant: Pancreatic cancer thats spread to more distant areas of the body has a 5-year survival rate of 3.1%.
These percentages are calculated based on data from many people with pancreatic cancer over a long period of time. As such, they dont reflect individual factors like age and overall health or more recent advances in treatment or detection.
What Research Has Been Done
A recently published study found that one of these tests is capable of identifying over 50 types of cancer, and can give information on whether someone has cancer, and where that cancer is.
This study looked at 4,077 people altogether, comprising of 2,823 people with cancer and 1,254 without. Of the 2,823 people who had already been diagnosed with cancer, the test accurately identified these cancers in 51.5% of people.
This might seem low on the surface of things, but that could mean that 50% of people get their cancer picked up earlier than they would have done otherwise. Thus, allowing them to start treatment quickly and giving them the best possible chance of survival.
When this test was used in the group of 1,254 people without cancer, the test accurately identified that these individuals didnt have cancer in 99.5% of cases. This means the ‘false positive’ rate the rate of which the test shows someone has cancer when they actually dont is only 0.5%.
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Cancer Prevention: Controllable Risk Factors
Medical science still has a lot to learn about what causes cancer, but over the past few decades, many factors that can contribute to its development have been identified. Many cancers have been linked to specific behaviors or environmental factors that can be controlled by individuals throughout their lives. In fact, according to the American Cancer Society, more than half of all cancer deaths could be prevented by making healthy lifestyle choices. Steps that you can take to help prevent cancer include:
Following A Dream To Catch Cancer Early
One of the first to imagine a cancer-screening blood test was Nick Papadopoulos, who holds a doctorate in biomedical sciences and is a professor of oncology and pathology at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and a member of the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center there. Papadopoulos is a co-founder of Thrive Earlier Detection Corp., which has licensed the CancerSEEK test , a liquid biopsy designed to detect multiple types of cancer at the earliest stages possible, before noticeable symptoms.
The majority of cancers are found when the person has symptoms, and many times by the time they see a doctor and are diagnosed, its hard to cure or even prolong the patients life, Papadopoulos says. Were trying to detect cancers as early as we can.
He says that for 30 or 40 years, scientists have known that some kind of signal must exist in the blood of someone with cancer to broadcast that the disease is there. Its just taken decades to find it.
So what is that signal? Adam Buchanan, director of Geisinger Genomic Medicine Institute and principal investigator on the DETECT study, says the liquid biopsy looks for protein biomarkers and pieces of DNA that have been shed from a tumor and are circulating through the blood.
The real power of these tests, then, lies in finding the remaining 95-plus cancers, saysDr. Joshua Ofman, chief medical officer and head of external affairs for GRAIL, a health care company developing another liquid biopsy.
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Multicancer Early Detection Tests
Multicancer early detection tests are tests that measure biological signals in body fluids that may be shed by cancer cells. These signals are also known as biomarkers or tumor markers. Depending on which signals the MCED test measures, it may detect several different types of cancer. Whether MCED tests are effective for cancer screening in people without symptoms is unknown and needs to be assessed through randomized clinical trials.
No MCED tests have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. However, a health care provider may be able to order an MCED test for a patient.
For more information, see Tumor Markers and Questions and AnswersCancer Screening with Multi-Cancer Early Detection Tests.
How Are Researchers Trying To Improve The Psa Test
Scientists are investigating ways to improve the PSA test to give doctors the ability to better distinguish cancerous from benign conditions and slow-growing cancers from fast-growing, potentially lethal cancers. And other potential biomarkers of prostate cancer are being investigated. None of these tests has been proven to decrease the risk of death from prostate cancer. Some of the methods being studied include
Thompson IM, Pauler DK, Goodman PJ, et al. Prevalence of prostate cancer among men with a prostate-specific antigen level < or =4.0 ng per milliliter. New England Journal of Medicine 2004 350:22392246.
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Someone You Love Has Cancer: What To Do What To Say
A cancer diagnosis is a devastating event in the life for the person who receives it as well as for their family and friends. Of course, if someone close to you has been diagnosed with cancer, youll want to offer them comfort and support as they come to terms with the diagnosis and proceed with treatment. However, it can be very difficult to find the right words to say or the best ways to help in these very trying situations. Here, weve put together some tips that can help you comfort someone with cancer.
Dont speak, just listen Most of us simply do not know what to say to comfort someone with cancer, and many of us are very afraid of saying exactly the wrong thing. Chances are, if youre shocked by the news and arent quite sure how to handle it, you may just do that, so just be honest with your friend or loved one. Let them know that you have no words that can make things better, but make it clear that you are ready, willing and able to listen. Often, just listening quietly as your friend expresses facts, feelings and fears about the situation is the most valuable form of comfort and support you can offer.
Some of the media in this article come from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions Public Health Image Library , with identification number #13406.
Positron Emission Tomography Scan
For a PET scan, a slightly radioactive form of sugar is injected into the blood and collects mainly in cancer cells.
PET/CT scan: Often a PET scan is combined with a CT scan using a special machine that can do both at the same time. This lets the doctor compare areas of higher radioactivity on the PET scan with a more detailed picture on the CT scan. This is the type of PET scan most often used in patients with lung cancer.
PET/CT scans can be useful:
- If your doctor thinks the cancer might have spread but doesnt know where. They can show spread of cancer to the liver, bones, adrenal glands, or some other organs. They are not as useful for looking at the brain or spinal cord.
- In diagnosing lung cancer, but their role in checking whether treatment is working is unproven. Most doctors do not recommend PET/CT scans for routine follow up of patients after lung cancer treatment.
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What Other Tests Are Available To Detect Or Diagnose Ovarian Cancer
Some additional tests that may be done are CT scans, MRI scans, PET scans, Paracentesis and Biopsies.
CT scans are x-rays that effectively take a picture of a cross-wise slice of your body. Many such image slices are taken at one time. Sometimes you may be given a contrast medium, which is a dye to help visualize details in the pictures. Unfortunately, even with advances in CT scanning, it is hard to see a tumor or other abnormality that is less than 5 millimeters in size. Larger tumors and enlarged lymph nodes can be visualized using the CT scanner. It is often used to determine if cancer has spread to other organs as well.
MRI scans use a magnetic field and radio waves to produce the imaging. You may also be given a contrast medium for this test. This test can take pictures of slices of your body both cross-wise and length-wise. While not often used to look for ovarian cancer in the first instance, they can help determine the size of the tumor.
PET scans use a radioactive sugar which is injected into your body. Since this sugar is attracted to cells that use the most energy, and cancer cells use a lot of energy, they take in more of the radioactive sugar than the surrounding cells. This helps to identify any cancerous cells. The PET scan is often used with a CT. This scan has been helpful in identifying ovarian cancer that has already spread.
Can Cancer Be Diagnosed With A Blood Test During Routine Examinations
Myth: Cancer can be detected in asymptomatic patients by a blood draw for tumor biomarkers during routine examinations in a doctor’s office. The reliability of tumor biomarkers to diagnose cancer in asymptomatic patients is a frequently asked question in general practice as well as in an oncology setting.
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What Is Cancer And How Does It Occur
Cancer is actually a group of diseases that begin in the bodys basic units of life the cells. There are trillions of cells in the human body that combine to form skin, muscle, bone, breast and blood. In normal cell behavior, cells grow and divide to produce more cells as needed. After a limited number of divisions, the cell is programmed to die, replaced by new, younger cells. What happens, however, when cancer develops, is a loss of control in normal cell growth. In simple terms, cancer is the overgrowth of abnormal cells. Over time, these abnormal cells form a mass of tissue a growth or a tumor that invades and destroys normal tissue. These abnormal cells can also spread throughout the body, resulting in metastatic cancer.
Research continues on the many causes of cancer, a complex disease that develops as a step-by-step process before it becomes lethal. What researchers know for certain is that while exact causes of many cancers are not yet known, both external and internal factors play a role in cancer developing, including genetics, aging, lifestyle choices, exposure to carcinogens and infections.
What Are The Signs Of Kidney Cancer
Often, there are no signs or symptoms of kidney cancer, especially in its early stages.
Kidney cancer is often found during routine blood work or testing for other concerns. When symptoms are present, they can look like symptoms of less serious conditions, like bladder infections or kidney stones.
Symptoms of kidney cancer may include:
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Are There Any Risks To The Test
For a blood test: There is very little risk to having a blood test. You may have slight pain or bruising at the spot where the needle was put in, but most symptoms go away quickly.
For a urine test: There is no risk to a urine test.
For a biopsy: You may have a little bruising or bleeding at biopsy site. You may also have a little discomfort for a day or two.
Diagnostic Tests For Lung Cancer
If the imaging tests indicate that you might have lung cancer, it will be confirmed with a diagnostic test. These tests involve taking a tissue sample from your body and examining it in a laboratory. Diagnostic tests for lung cancer include the following:
- A sputum cytology examines material such as mucus that has been coughed up from your lungs.
- A thoracentesis is a test that involves a doctor taking a sample of fluid from around your lungs using a special needle that goes between your ribs.
- A needle biopsy is similar to a thoracentesis, but a small piece of tissue is taken instead of fluid.
- A bronchoscopy is a procedure where a doctor inserts a special tube down your airway to look at your lungs or take a tissue sample from your bronchi.
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How Blood Protein Testing Works
Blood protein testing uses a process called electrophoresis to measure two types of proteins in the blood: globulin and albumin. Albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood. Low levels of albumin can signal myeloma as the cancer may block its production. High levels of globulin can signal myeloma as it can cause an increase in production of globulin.
New Ai Blood Test Technology To Detect Liver Cancer
The blood test, called DELFI detects fragmentation changes among DNA from cancer cells shed into the bloodstream, known as cell-free DNA . In the most recent study, investigators used the DELFI technology on blood plasma samples obtained from 724 individuals in the U.S., the European Union and Hong Kong to detect hepatocellular cancer , a type of liver cancer.
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What Are Some Measures I Can Take To Avoid Breast Cancer Or Minimize The Disease
Most experts agree that screening is the best way to catch breast cancer in its early stages. It doesnt prevent cancer but it can lead to quick detection and a better outcome. There is still some debate about when or whether to get screened for breast cancer, stemming from a study that showed more deaths from breast cancer occurred in younger women who didnt get regular mammograms. Arguments arose about false positives and over-treatment. In addition, different surveys can lead to different answers, so the best advice is to consult with your healthcare provider about your individual situation and relevant risk factors. An annual mammogram for women over 40 is still a good guide. The CA 27.29 is a blood test, a tumor marker, specific for screening for breast cancer. Other ways to boost your chances of not getting breast cancer and improve your overall health:
Blood Tests For Tumor Markers
Tumor markers are substances that are either made by cancer cells or made by your body in response to cancer. Some types of tumor markers can be found in the blood and could indicate the presence of cancer.
The two tumor markers most commonly used to help detect pancreatic cancer are called CA19-9 and CEA. These are proteins that, at higher levels, can be detected in the blood of some people with pancreatic cancer.
However, not everyone with pancreatic cancer has high levels of these proteins. Also, other health conditions can also cause high levels of these proteins.
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Blood Test Results That May Indicate A Kidney Problem
Blood test results can indicate your kidneys arent working correctly and that more tests need to be done. Results that might prompt further testing include:
- CBC. Its common for people with kidney cancer to have fewer red blood cells than is considered to be healthy or, rarely, more red blood cells than is considered to be healthy due to abnormal kidney function. Either of these results indicates the need for further testing.
- Blood chemistry test. People with kidney cancer often have high levels of liver enzymes or calcium in their blood due to reduced kidney function. Youll need additional tests if your blood chemistry test shows high levels of these chemicals.