Causes Behind Blood Clots In Placenta During Pregnancy
Any problems in the placenta can become a cause of concern for your baby. Even your life may be in danger in some cases. Here we shall look into the factors resulting in blood clot in placenta during pregnancy:
1. Blood clots restrict flow of oxygen and proper nutrients to your baby.
2. Blood clots in the placenta may also prevent flow of waste from your baby to you.
3. Development of small blood clots may disappear on their own and may not affect your fetus in any way.
4. Placental abruption may result in placental blood clots. This abruption may be complete separation or partial separation of your placenta from your uterus before your baby is born.
5. In case of a placental abruption, you may suffer from abdominal pain or vaginal bleeding.
6. If the abruption is small you may not experience any symptom.
7. In case of large abruption, the baby developing inside may die due to loss of blood.
8. Thrombophilias or clotting disorder can result in blood clots in pregnancy. This form of blood clot is generally inherited. Chances of miscarriage are very high in this case.
9. If you have been diagnosed with blood clotting disorder before, you need to take thinner blood like Heparin or Lovenox for your future pregnancies.
10. Diabetes and high blood pressure also result in blood clots in placenta. Either these conditions arise in pregnancy or are pre-existing.
11. Infections, malignancy cause increased tendency for blood clotting.
12. Previous or thromboembolism.
Symptoms Of Thrombosis Of Umbilical Cord
The signs and symptoms of thrombosis of umbilical cord may be:
- Excessive bleeding or hemorrhage during child birth.
- Due to improper supply of blood to the fetus because of clot in the vein or the arteries, there may be fetal distress. In many cases fetal growth is retarded due to lack of nutrition.
- Most thrombosis of umbilical cord is noted in third trimester of pregnancy.
- Increased risk of stillbirth.
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A blood clot is a mass or clump of blood that forms when blood changes from a liquid to a solid.
The body normally makes blood clots to stop the bleeding after a scrape or cut. But sometimes blood clots can partly or completely block the flow of blood in a blood vessel, like a vein or artery. This can cause damage to body organs and even death.
Most women with blood clotting conditions have healthy pregnancies. But these conditions may cause problems for some pregnant women. In severe cases, they can cause death for both mom and baby. But testing and treatment can help save both you and your baby.
If youre pregnant or trying to get pregnant and have had problems with blood clots in the past, tell your health care provider at a preconception checkup or at your first prenatal care checkup. Also tell your provider if someone in your family has had problems with blood clots. This means the condition may be in your family history .
If you or someone in your family has had problems with blood clots, talk to your provider about getting a blood test to see if you have a thrombophilia. This is a health condition that increases your chances of making abnormal blood clots. Some pregnant women with thrombophilias need treatment with medicines called blood thinners. They stop clots from getting bigger and prevent new clots from forming.
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How Is Thrombosis Of Umbilical Cord Treated
- Thrombosis of Umbilical Cord can be a medical emergency and the treatment is directed at saving the fetus and managing the associated complications
- A careful and periodic monitoring of the pregnancy is necessary, since the presence of Umbilical Cord Thrombosis is considered to be a high-risk pregnancy
What Are The Causes Of Thrombosis Of Umbilical Cord
- In a majority of cases, the exact cause of Thrombosis of Umbilical Cord is unknown
- But, it may be caused by cord compression from a variety of factors such as large fetus, cord stricture, inflammation, etc.
- It can also occurs due to any underlying condition that results in easy blood clot formations
Thrombosis of Umbilical Cord is not caused by what the expectant mother does or does not do, either prior to or during pregnancy.
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What Happens After Umbilical Stump Falls Off
When the stump falls off, you may notice a little blood on the diaper dont worry, its normal. Sometimes, after the stump falls off, theres some drainage of clear or yellow fluid, and some bits of lumpy flesh may remain. These “umbilical granulomas” may disappear on their own, or they may need to be treated by your childs doctor.
What Are Other Reasons People May Be At Risk For Having Blood Clots
Certain things make you more likely than others to have a blood clot. These are called risk factors. Having a risk factor doesnt mean for sure that youll have a blood clot. But it may increase your chances. Talk to your provider about what you can do to help reduce your risk.
Risk factors for blood clots include:
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Thrombosis Of Umbilical Cord: Causes Symptoms And Treatment
Thrombosis is blockage or obstruction in the blood vessel due to a blood clot. Thrombosis of umbilical cord is a rare phenomenon but when it occurs it is life threatening event. On an average 1 out of 1300 deliveries is known to be affected with umbilical cord thrombosis. The umbilical cord consists of two umbilical arteries and one umbilical vein.
Thrombosis most often occurs in umbilical vein as compared to umbilical arteries. The common risk factors include excessive twisting of umbilical cord, multiple pregnancies, large sized baby, abnormal insertion of umbilical cord in the placenta etc.
The two main serious symptoms this abnormality can produce is too much bleeding during delivery and fetal distress due to reduced supply of blood. Fetal monitoring is regularly required because of its adverse outcome. Thrombosis of umbilical cord is a medical emergency and most of these cases need early delivery by cesarean section to save the fetus.
Stillbirth At 40 Weeks Blood Clot In Cord
Hello, I am a first time mom of 38 years old and had done IVF for this pregnancy. When I woke up on Tuesday am and did not feel any baby movement I got worried and went to the hospital. It was there that they told us the horrible news that our son did not have a hearbeat. This is all too unreal as he was moving the night before so we are just speechless. I was induced and gave birth early Wednesday morning to a beautiful sleeping baby boy named Zack. The doctor discovered he had a blood clot in his cord!! We are devastated. I would like to know if there is anyone who has some insight or tips or questions that I can ask the doctors or just anything…… I am a loss for words but just looking for some answers…
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Is It Common To Get Blood Clots During Pregnancy
In fact, pregnant women are 5 times more likely to experience a blood clot compared with women who are not pregnant. Don’t let a blood clot spoil your joy during this exciting time! Learn about pregnancy-related blood clots and tips on protecting yourself and your baby for a safe and healthy pregnancy.
Causes And Risk Factors For Thrombosis Of Umbilical Cord
Thrombosis of umbilical cord is a rare complication of pregnancy. It increases mortality and morbidity of the fetus. The exact cause of this condition is not known but there are several risk factors that are known to cause this condition.
Below are the risk factors that are usually associated with this condition:
- Excessive twisting of umbilical cord.
- Too short or too long cord. Short cord may stretch the vessels too much during labor which may cause damage to the vessels and eventual thrombosis.
- Large sized baby or multiple pregnancies.
- Inflammation of the umbilical cord caused due to infection, preeclampsia or phlebitis.
- The umbilical cord may get abnormally inserted in the placenta as in case of velamentous insertion or insertion at the margin of the placenta.
- Presence of diabetes in pregnant mother is known risk factor for formation of thrombus. This occurs because the mother has increased level of alpha 2 antiplasmin and low level of fibrinolysin. This may increase the risk of thrombosis.
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Clotting Tied To Covid
WEDNESDAY, May 27, 2020 — Women who had COVID-19 while pregnant showed evidence of placental injury, suggesting a new complication of the illness, researchers say.
The good news from the small study of 16 women is that “most of these babies were delivered full-term after otherwise normal pregnancies,” said study senior author Dr. Jeffrey Goldstein. He’s assistant professor of pathology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago.
However, signs of reduced blood flow in the placentas of women infected with the new coronavirus does have doctors concerned.
Right now, COVID-19 injury to the placenta “doesn’t appear to be inducing negative outcomes in live-born infants, based on our limited data, but it does validate the idea that women with COVID should be monitored more closely,” Goldstein said in a university news release.
The placenta provides the fetus with nutrients and oxygen from the mother, while at the same time removing waste.
In the research, the Chicago team examined the placentas of the women immediately after they gave birth. The researchers found signs of abnormal blood flow between the mothers and their babies.
All of the women had tested positive for COVID-19, but their symptoms varied. Five never developed any symptoms of coronavirus infection at all, the researchers noted. Four had flu-like symptoms three or four weeks prior to delivering their babies, while others showed symptoms at the time of delivery.
What Are Some Ways I Can Prevent Blood Clots During Pregnancy
- Talk with your healthcare provider about your risk of blood clots , and come up with a plan to reduce your chances of developing one.
- Know the signs and symptoms so you can get treatment as soon as possible, if necessary.
- Stay active. Regular exercise helps blood flow throughout your body, while sitting for long stretches limits blood flow and make a blood clot more likely. If you’re sitting for long periods of time , do leg stretches and get up and walk around when possible.
- When on a long trip, wear loose, comfortable clothes, don’t smoke beforehand, and avoid alcohol or any medications that may make you sleepy, because you’ll be less likely to move around.
- Wear knee-high compression stockings if you are at risk of blood clots
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Take any medications you’ve been prescribed. If you’re at high risk for DVT, your provider may prescribe anticoagulants as preventative therapy.
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What Can Moms Do
The most important thing for a concerned expectant mother can do is talk with her doctor and discuss her risk factors. If she has a personal or family history of blood clots, a genetic predisposition, or another risk factor, her doctor can help identify the best individualized medical treatment.
Beyond medical treatment, remaining active is key. Many women slow down late into their pregnancy, but being sedentary increases the risk of developing a blood clot. Even light exercise, such as walking, can be very beneficial.
If youre a woman with a history of blood clots who is pregnant or planning to become pregnant, its important to speak with your doctor to decide what treatments and precautions are right for you.
Umbilical Cord Hematoma: A Case Report And Review Of The Literature
Piergiorgio IannoneAcademic Editor: Received
Objectives. To deepen the knowledge in obstetrics on a very rare pregnancy complication: umbilical cord hematoma. Methods. A review of the case reports described in the last ten years in the literature was conducted in order to evaluate epidemiology, predisposing factors, potential outcomes, prenatal diagnosis, and clinical management. Results. Spontaneous umbilical cord hematoma is a rare complication of pregnancy which represents a serious cause of fetal morbidity and mortality. There are many risk factors such as morphologic anomalies, infections, vessel wall abnormalities, iatrogenic causes, and traction or torsion of the cord, but the exact etiology is still unknown. . Due to the rarity of this condition, every new case of umbilical cord hematoma should be reported in order to improve the knowledge of predisposing factors, prenatal diagnosis, and clinical management.
Although very rare, umbilical cord hematoma is a real serious complication of pregnancy. It represents a rare cause of acute fetal distress that may be shown by the decrease of fetal movement or fetal death .
Lately, a case of UCH resulted in perinatal death at our department stimulating our interest in performing this review of the literature, emphasizing the research on pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management for UCH.
2. Materials and Methods
3.3. Case Report
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Two Types Of Knots In Umbilical Cord
Any protuberance or bulge in the umbilical cord of a baby present in an ultrasound is very likely a false knot. These types of knots are slight variation in anatomy of the cord, generally formed by blood vessel swelling or when the cord is covered by excessive Whartons jelly.
It is relatively common to have small pseudoknots during pregnancies. A physician cannot untangle these knots as these are formed inside the umbilical cord and not outside the cord however, fortunately, there is no clinical significance of these knots and they do not pose any danger to the health of the baby.
As the name suggests, a true knot is formed when the cord interweaves or loops around itself. These knots may form during pregnancy and during delivery. As per definition, true knots may be untangled manually as they are formed by knotting of the umbilical cord on its outside.
A true knot in umbilical cord may be present in less than two percent of pregnancies. Majority of them are loose knots and dont result in a problem.
But in case the umbilical cord of your baby gets a true knot early on during pregnancy, the future movements and growth of the baby may tighten the knot and squeeze off oxygen and blood supply to your baby. True umbilical knots become more dangerous the nearer your baby reaches to birth. In worse scenarios, it may cause asphyxia resulting in brain damage and death. The mortality rate of tight knots is 10%.
How Can I Safely Keep Up With My Prenatal Care Appointments During The Covid
During the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic your prenatal care visits may change. Ask your provider how he will monitor your health and do the tests you need while keeping you and your baby safe from COVID-19.
Providers are taking steps to prevent the spreading of COVID-19 by using telehealth or telemedicine. Telehealth or telemedicine are health visits where you talk to your provider by phone or by videocall, instead of going to his office. You will need either a phone, tablet or computer for a telehealth visit and in some cases you may need access to the internet. Let your provider know if you are unable to have telehealth visits due to lack equipment or any other reason. Ask any questions you may have about keeping up with your ultrasounds and other tests while avoiding getting COVID-19.
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How Will Dvt Affect My Labor And Delivery
If you’re taking a longer-acting injection during pregnancy, your provider will likely switch to a shorter-acting heparin at around 36 weeks. This is so when labor begins it will wear off more quickly and allow you to get an epidural if you desire. Your anesthesiologist may want to check your blood’s ability to clot prior to placing the epidural, so make sure you tell your labor team when you took your last blood thinner.
After delivery, you’ll be restarted on blood thinners and continue to take them until six-weeks postpartum. Heparin and lovenox injections are safe while breastfeeding, as is warifin. Talk with your provider about the safest choices for you and your baby.
What Does This Study Add
- We provide a clinical-pathological description of a case of antenatally diagnosed umbilical cord thrombosis with an unfavorable outcome.
- It highlights the need for consensus on severity criteria, including the percentage of vascular occlusion determined by power Doppler, in order to improve outcome.
The umbilical vein thrombosis is a rare event and its management at the time of diagnosis remains undefined.
We present the unfavorable course of umbilical cord thrombosis revealed by ultrasound scan at 32 weeks of gestation . Despite the close follow-up, the fetus died in utero.
US scan: ectasia of the umbilical vein at the level of placental cord insertion with turbulent and pulsatile flow extended by partial thrombosis of the umbilical vein.
Histopathological examination revealed a macerated, eutrophic fetus with no malformations. The placental examination revealed a massively dilated chorionic vein with a 5 cm vascular ectasia and intimal dysplasia with thrombosis .2). The cord displayed 3 vessels and was highly twisted , counter-clockwise. Histological examination of placental parenchyma showed, in addition to venous thrombosis, generally avascular chorionic villi.
Pathology: vascular wall intimal dysplasia with thrombosis.
Redline et al. reported extensive avascular villi as a distinct process with substantial perinatal morbidity. The mother tested negative for thrombophilia.
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