Renal Vein Thrombosis Pathophysiology
Blood flow to and away from the kidney is through the renal artery and renal vein respectively. The artery carries oxygen rich blood to the kidney. This blood not only nourishes the kidney tissue but is also filtered so that wastes can be removed from the bloodstream. The blood eventually drains into the renal vein and sent to the right side of the heart.
Picture of the kidney from Wikimedia Commons.
What Does It Look Like
TMA causes changes in your kidney that can be seen under a microscope. The pictures below show blood vessels in the main filter of the kidney . A healthy blood vessel appears as a circle with an open center. Vessels affected by TMA will be filled with a pinkish material, which is clot. Over time, parts of the kidney may die from lack of blood flow.
TMA also changes how a drop of your blood looks under a microscope. Normal blood has completely round red blood cells and plenty of tiny platelets. When you suffer from TMA your blood will have deformed red blood cells and no platelets.
Cytokine Storms Can Destroy Kidney Tissue
The bodys reaction to the infection may be responsible as well. The immune response to the new coronavirus can be extreme in some people, leading to what is called a cytokine storm.
When that happens, the immune system sends a rush of cytokines into the body. Cytokines are small proteins that help the cells communicate as the immune system fights an infection. But this sudden, large influx of cytokines can cause severe inflammation. In trying to kill the invading virus, this inflammatory reaction can destroy healthy tissue, including that of the kidneys.
When To Call The Doctor
If the child has any of these symptoms, the parent should seek emergency medical care:
- a high fever of 102° F, or 38.9°C, or above
- sudden onset of lower back pain
- sudden, severe leg swelling
- blood in the urine
If the child has any of these symptoms of dehydration, the parent should give the child clear fluids and an oral rehydrating solution, such as Pedialyte, and contact the child’s pediatrician:
- sunken abdomen, eyes, and cheeks
What Would Cause A Blood Clot In Kidney
Nephrotic syndrome is the most common cause of a clot in the renal veinrenal veinThe renal veins are veins that drain the kidney. They connect the kidney to the inferior vena cava. They carry the blood filtered by the kidney. The anterior surfaces of the kidneys, showing the areas of contact of neighboring viscera.https://en.wikipedia.org wiki Renal_veinRenal vein – Wikipedia . Nephrotic syndrome is a condition in which large amounts of a protein called albumin leak into your urine. Other causes of renal vein thrombosis include injury to the vein, infection, or a tumor.
Blood Clots?Kidney Stones?Why I Went To The Hospital Vlog
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Coronavirus: Kidney Damage Caused By Covid
Does COVID-19 affect the kidneys? It can. In addition to attacking the lungs, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19 officially called SARS-CoV-2 also can cause severe and lasting harm in other organs, including the heart and kidneys.
C. John Sperati, M.D., M.H.S., an expert in kidney health, discusses how the new coronavirus might affect kidney function as the illness develops and afterward as a person recovers.
When To Contact A Medical Professional
Contact your health care provider if you have symptoms of renal vein thrombosis.
If you have experienced renal vein thrombosis, call your provider if you have:
Breathing difficulty may involve:Difficult breathing Uncomfortable breathingFeeling like you are not getting enough air
- Other new symptoms
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How Can I Reduce My Risk
After you have a DVT, youll need to reduce your risk of future DVT/PE clots by:
- Taking your medications exactly as your healthcare provider tells you to.
- Keeping your follow-up appointments with your doctor and the laboratory. These tell your provider how well your treatment is working.
- Making lifestyle changes, such as eating healthier foods, being more active and avoiding tobacco products.
If youve never had a DVT, but have an increased risk of developing one, be sure to:
- Exercise your calf muscles if you need to sit still for a long time. Stand up and walk at least every half hour if youre on a long flight. Or get out of the car every hour if youre on a long road trip.
- Get out of bed and move around as soon as you can after youre sick or have surgery. The sooner you move around, the less chance you have of developing a DVT.
- Take medications or use compression stockings after surgery to reduce your risk of a clot.
- Follow up with your provider as directed and follow their recommendations to reduce your risk of a clot.
Do Blood Clots Cause Kidney Failure
A complete blockage of blood flow to the kidney can often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury or trauma to the abdomen, side, or back. Blood clots that travel through the bloodstream can lodge in the renal artery.
Blood Clots, Causes, Signs And Symtpoms, Diagnosis And Treatment.
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Recognize The Signs And Symptoms Of Blood Clots
Contact your cancer doctor if you experience any of these signs or symptoms of a blood clot.
Signs and symptoms of a blood clot in a persons leg or arm may include:
Pain or tenderness not caused by injury
Skin that is warm to the touch
Redness or discoloration of the skin
Seek immediate medical attention if you experience any of these signs or symptoms of a blood clot.
Signs and symptoms of a blood clot in a persons lung may include:
Chest pain that worsens with a deep breath or cough
Coughing up blood
Faster than normal or irregular heartbeat
What Is The Treatment
TTP and HUS have different treatments. To prevent death and serious organ damage TTP requires immediate treatment with plasma exchange see Figure 5 for a diagram. The process occurs as follows:
This process allows the abnormal glue that causes TTP to be exchanged for normal vWF. Treatments usually last a few hours each and continue every 1-2 days for about 2 weeks. For those with repeated episodes of TTP, a medication called rituximab is being tested to see if its use can prevent recurrences of the disease.
In contrast, HUS usually improves on its own. Patients will require hospitalization for fluids and monitoring while the disease is worsening. If kidney function declines too much, manual blood cleaning with dialysis may be necessary. As the causative bacterial infection resolves, toxin leaves the body and symptoms of HUS begin to improve.
In many of the more atypical TTP/HUS disease patterns the optimal treatment has not yet been standardized. These are often treated with plasma exchange, but there is currently some debate about this.
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What Is Blood In Urine
Blood in your urine can look red, pink or brown. Sometimes, you may not know you have blood in your urine until you have a urine test. A urine test may also find white blood cells, which can be a sign of an infection in your kidneys or another part of your urinary tract.
Be sure to tell your doctor if you have blood in your urine so they can decide what to do next.
If you notice a lot of blood, or any blood clots in your urine, contact your doctor right away.
Is It Common To Have A Blood Clot In The Renal Vein
There are two renal veins left and right that are responsible for draining oxygen-depleted blood from the kidneys. Renal vein thrombosis is not common and can cause serious damage to the kidneys and other life-threatening injuries. It occurs in adults more frequently than in children. Symptoms of a small renal blood clot are minimal, if any.
Can a blood clot in the kidneys cause pulmonary embolism?
Related Articles. Renal vein thrombosis is a rare condition in which a blood clot forms in the renal vein, blocking the flow of blood from the kidneys to the heart. This can lead to kidney failure or another condition known as pulmonary embolism, in which all or part of the clot breaks off and travels to the lungs.
What to do if you have a blood clot in your kidneys?
Intravenous fluids are the typical treatments for patients who develop renal vein thrombosis due to dehydration. In other cases, the treatment is focused on preventing the clot from traveling to the lungs, where it be life threatening. Blood thinners can help smooth out the clots.
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What Is Renovascular Disease
The kidneys filter blood and remove waste from your body through the form of urine, which collects in your bladder and exits your body when you urinate. The kidneys also help to control your blood pressure by secreting a hormone called renin into your bloodstream. The renal arteries and renal veins supply the kidneys. Renovascular disease is a condition that affects these blood vessels of your kidneys. The blood vessels may become narrow or blocked due to blood clots or plaque buildup and lead to renal vein thrombosis or renal artery stenosis respectively.
Symptoms And Complications Of Blood Clots
Blood clotting is a normal function that occurs when you have an injury. If you scrape your knee, blood clots at the site of the injury so you dont lose too much blood. But sometimes blood clotting can cause complications.
Sometimes a clot will form inside a blood vessel, which is either an artery or a vein. Clots can happen even when there is no injury. Clots can also fail to dissolve after an injury has healed. This can cause serious complications if not discovered and treated.
Some complications could be serious and even life-threatening, especially if a clot forms in a blood vessel. Its important to understand the symptoms of clots so you can get treatment before complications occur.
Symptoms vary depending on where in your body the clot is. These include:
|Arm or leg
|speech impairment weakness changes in sensation in the face, one arm or leg, or one side of your body
|shortness of breath chest pains that may extend down the left arm nausea
|blood in the vomitus or stool
|sharp chest pains
You may be at risk for forming a blood clot if you:
- are over the age of 60
- take oral contraceptives
- have a chronic inflammatory disease
- have atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation
- have congestive heart failure
- have fractures in your extremities, especially the lower extremities or pelvis
- have a family history of clotting disorders
- are unable to walk
- sit for long periods of time
- travel frequently
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How Is Renal Vascular Disease Diagnosed
Your healthcare provider will review your medical history and do a physical exam. Other tests may include:
Arteriogram . This is an X-ray image of the blood vessels used to check for aneurysm, narrowing, or blockages. A dye is injected through a thin, flexible tube placed in an artery. This dye makes the blood vessels visible on X-ray.
Duplex ultrasound. This test is done to check blood flow and the structure of the renal veins and arteries. The term duplex” refers to the fact that 2 modes of ultrasound are used. The first takes an image of the renal artery being studied. The second mode checks the blood flow.
Renography. This test is used to check the function and structure of the kidneys. It is a type of nuclear radiology procedure. This means that a tiny amount of a radioactive substance is used during the test to help view the kidneys.
Magnetic resonance angiography . This test uses a combination of magnetic resonance imaging technology and intravenous contrast dye to see blood vessels. Contrast dye causes blood vessels to appear solid on the MRI image. This lets the healthcare provider see the blood vessels.
What Is Renal Vein Thrombosis
Renal vein thrombosis is a blood clot that forms inside the blood vessel that empties blood out of the kidney. Unlike blockage of the artery that brings oxygen-rich blood to the kidney, a renal vein thrombosis is unlikely to cause permanent damage to the kidney or death of any portion of the tissue. However, it does impair kidney function that has a host of consequences. The greater danger is when the clot breaks away from the renal vein and reaches the lung where it causes an obstruction of the blood vessels . Renal vein thrombosis usually does not present with any specific symptoms and may be found incidentally or should be investigated as a possibility with certain conditions that are known to cause it.
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How Is Dvt Diagnosed
Your healthcare provider will do a physical exam and review your medical history. Youll also need to have imaging tests.
Tests to diagnose a DVT
Duplex venous ultrasound. This is the most common test for diagnosing a DVT because it is non-invasive and widely available. This test uses ultrasound waves to show blood flow and blood clots in your veins. A vascular ultrasound technologist applies pressure while scanning your arm or leg. If the pressure doesnt make your vein compress, it could mean theres a blood clot. If the results of the duplex ultrasound arent clear, your provider can use another imaging test
Venography. In this invasive test, your provider numbs the skin of your neck or groin and uses a catheter to inject a special dye into your veins to see if any blood clots are partially or completely blocking blood flow inside your veins. Venography is rarely used nowadays, but sometimes it is necessary
Magnetic Resonance Imaging or Magnetic Resonance Venography . MRI shows pictures of organs and structures inside your body. MRV shows pictures of the veins in specific locations in your body. In many cases, MRI and MRV can offer more information than a duplex ultrasound or CT scan.
Computed tomography scan is a type of X-ray that shows structures inside your body. Your provider may use a CT scan to find a DVT in your abdomen, pelvis or brain, as well as blood clots in your lung .
What Is The Difference Between Dvt And A Superficial Venous Thrombosis
A superficial venous thrombosis is when blood clots develop in a vein close to the surface of your skin. These types of blood clots rarely travel to your lungs unless they move from the superficial system into the deep venous system first. While a physician can diagnose superficial vein clots with a physical exam, they can only diagnose DVT with an ultrasound.
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What Are Ttp And Hus
TTP usually occurs when platelets stick together too easily . Platelets use a glue in the plasma called von Willebrand Factor to hold themselves together in the form of a clot. The glue can be more or less sticky depending on the size of its molecules so if the glue molecules become too long, the platelets will form clots even when theyre not supposed to. Usually the body keeps vWF glue cut to exactly the right length with an enzyme called ADAMTS13. TTP develops when a shortage of that enzyme results in unwanted clotting in the small blood vessels of the kidney. The shortage can be caused by one of the following:
- a genetic problem that keeps you from producing enough clipping enzyme
- an overly active immune system that attacks and destroys your supply of clipping enzyme
In summary, your body becomes unable to keep vWF glue short enough to prevent abnormal clot and damage to the small blood vessels of your body.
In contrast, HUS most often occurs when your body is exposed to a certain type of toxin . The toxin usually comes from a bacterial infection of the intestines. Generally this infection must be serious enough to cause bloody diarrhea. The toxin makes its way into the blood stream and then damages endothelial cells in the kidney. This triggers platelets to clot and red blood cells to burst as described above. For unknown reasons HUS usually occurs in children rather than adults.
Renal Vein Thrombosis Incidence
A renal vein thrombosis is more likely to occur in the backdrop of nephrotic syndrome in adults and dehydration in infants. It is estimated to affect between 5% to 60% of patients with nephrotic syndrome. Men are twice as more likely to suffer with renal vein thrombosis than women. Since conditions that lead to nephrotic syndrome are more common in later life, a renal vein thrombosis is more likely to arise in the 40 to 60 year age group.
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Discomfort When You Cough Or Sneeze
One sign that you may have blood clots in your kidney is discomfort when you cough or sneeze. The symptoms of these clots typically get worse with movement and by the end of the day. It may also be accompanied by pain or even hematuria, which is the blood that comes out of your urine as a result of such clots. Hematuria is especially prevalent during urinary tract infections and kidney infections, which are caused by obstructions in the renal system, making it harder for urine to flow.